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Director's Message 


This was a year of important transitions for the MCZ. We bid a lasting farewell 
to two dear friends and colleagues and welcomed several new ones. We 
celebrated our 150 th anniversary and launched new research endeavors. 
We dusted off old specimens and are making room for vital new collections. 
This report reveals the MCZ as a dynamic and evolving institution. 

In September 2009, Dr. Karel Liem, Henry 
Bryant Bigelow Professor of Ichthyology and 
Curator of Ichthyology, succumbed to cancer. 
A memorial gathering the following December 
celebrated Karel's life and work in an event 
filled with gratitude, memories and laughter. 

In April 2010, we lost another important 
member of our community, Mr. David Stone. 
A longtime member of the MCZ Faculty, 
the MCZ's governing board, David was a 
champion of environmental education and 
natural history. His wisdom and personal 
warmth, as well as his passionate advocacy 
on behalf of the MCZ, will be missed 
tremendously. Toward the end of his tenure 
on the Faculty, David was keen that we recruit 
new members to this prestigious group. In 
that spirit I am delighted to introduce three 
new members later in this report. I'm looking 
forward to working with them to serve the 
MCZ in the best way possible. 

In January, Charles Marshall, MCZ's Curator 
of Invertebrate Paleontology, left Harvard to 
assume the directorship of the University of 
California Museum of Paleontology. Charles's 
departure was a loss for the MCZ, but we wish 
him success in his new position. 

The MCZ is beginning to make its mark on 
Harvard's new Northwest Building. Two whale 
skeletons were hauled out of our attic and, 
after a thorough cleaning and minor repairs, 
installed in the main lobby last January. Soon, 
the MCZ will begin relocating into the building 
all or portions of eight research collections. 
These specimens will be housed in a new 
state-of-the-art collections facility intended for 
faculty, students and visiting scientists. 

The MCZ is not immune to problems posed 
by the recent economic downturn, yet thanks 
to robust financial strategies implemented 
well before I became director, we maintain 
our ability to pursue ambitious programs 
of intellectual inquiry, formal and informal 
science education, professional training, and 
collections development and stewardship 
focused on biodiversity and comparative 

The ongoing accomplishments of MCZ's 
faculty-curators and associated personnel 
testify to their willingness to incorporate 
new technologies and advances in molecular 
biology and genomics, functional biology, 
biodiversity informatics and digital imaging. 

We maintain worldwide collaborations 
through our participation in the 
Encyclopedia of Life, the Biodiversity 
Heritage Library, Assembling the Tree of Life 
and other global biodiversity initiatives, and 
we look forward to launching new ones. 

To ensure the success and ongoing impact 
of the institution, we continue to invest 
significant energy and resources to train new 
generations of scientists through a variety of 
specimen-based courses and in-house grant 

As always, I am deeply appreciative of 
everyone associated with the MCZ who made 
this year a success. I look forward to joining 
them carry the momentum and enthusiasm 
into next year. 

James Hanken 


Cover photo credits: 

Top, left to right: Jonathan Woodward, 
Joanna Larson, illustration by Parish A. 
Jenkins, Jr., Gabriel Miller, Tan I Morris 

Bottom, left to tight: Clemens Kiipper, 
Daniel DenDanlo, Contain Giribet,Jon 

Sanders, Jonathan Hurl 

Opposite page photo credit: Daniel 

Annual Report 2009-2010 


The Faculty of the MCZ 

The MCZ's original charter, signed in 1859, mandates that the Museum's 
activities be overseen by a governing board called the Faculty of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology. 

The MCZ is fortunate to have a governing board with a broad spectrum of professional 
experience and personal interests in the natural world. The Faculty is dedicated to sustaining 
the MCZ's reputation as a leader in zoological research, education and outreach, and ensuring 
its future standing, both academically and fiscally. 

This past year brought many changes to the composition of the MCZ Faculty. The MCZ would 
like to take this opportunity to both acknowledge the services of our longstanding members and 
to welcome new Faculty members to the MCZ community. In addition to the listed members, 
the Faculty also includes Harvard University President Drew Gilpin Faust. 

Dr. John D. Constable 

Dr. Constable, a member of the Faculty since 1985, is a 
graduate of Harvard Medical School and a pioneer in burn 
reconstructive surgery. He served as a board member of the 
World Wildlife Fund-US and chairman of the Conservation 
Committee of the New England Aquarium. 

Dr. Constable is one of the founding members of the Indochina 
Surgical Educational Exchange (ISEE) , giving Vietnamese 
doctors the opportunity to train in medical institutions in the 
United States. 

Mr. Robert G. Goelet 

Mr. Goelet is a Harvard graduate and the chairman of GxG 
Management, LLC. He has a passion for natural history and has 

served on the Faculty since 1981. 

He served as the eighth president of the American Museum of 

Natural History, president of the New York Historical Society and 

the New York Zoological Society, and director of the 

National Audubon Society. 

Mr. George Putnam, Jr. 

Mr. Putnam joined the Faculty in 1985. He served as chairman 
of Putnam Investment Management Company in Boston for 
over thirty years. 

He obtained his MBA from Harvard Business School and an 
honorary LL.D. from Harvard University. In addition to being a 
former Overseer and Treasurer for Harvard University, 
Mr. Putnam has served as a trustee of many medical, scientific, 
educational and cultural organizations. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 




Mr. George Putnam, III 

Mr. Putnam has recently joined the Faculty. He is a graduate of 
Harvard College, Harvard Business School and Harvard Law 
School, and is currently president of New Generation Advisors, 
LLC, and chairman of New Generation Research, Inc. 

He is a trustee of several educational organizations, the 
Putnam Group of Mutual Funds and the Marine Biological 
Laboratory in Woods Hole. 

Mr. David B. Stone 

The late Mr. Stone was considered the principal founder of the 

New England Aquarium in 1954, which set the standard for 

modern aquariums and helped to revitalize the Boston waterfront. 

He received his undergraduate degree and MBA from Harvard and 

was the president and chairman of North American 

Management Corporation. 

He was on numerous boards of commercial, scientific, educational 

and charitable organizations. David served as a member of the 

Faculty for 32 years and will be greatly missed. 

Dr. Barbara JilWu 

Dr. Wu is a new member of the Faculty. She obtained her 
graduate degree from Harvard in evolutionary biology and 
molecular biology. 

Since 1994 she has served in an advisory capacity for non- 
profit educational and research institutions, including the 
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, the Harvard School 
for Public Health and the Marine Biological Laboratory. 

Mr. Paul J. Zofnass 

Mr. Zofnass has recently joined the Faculty. An alumnus of 

Harvard Business School and Harvard Law School, he is 

president of The Environmental Financial Consulting Group, 

which provides advisory services to environmental, engineering 

and consulting firms. 

A member of Harvard's Committee on University Resources 
for 30 years, he has also participated in various Harvard visiting 

and advisory committees. 

Annual Report 2009-2010 

MCZ Faculty-Curators 

Andrew A. Biewener 

Charles P. Lyman Professor of Biology 

Director, Concord Field Station 

Chair, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology 

Prof. Biewener's research focuses on the biomechanics, 
neuromuscular function and control of animal movement. 
His goal is to understand general principles that govern 
the biomechanical and physiological design of vertebrate 
neuromusculoskeletal systems. 

Scott V. Edwards 

Professor of Biology 

Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology 

Curator of Ornithology 

Prof. Edwards' research focuses on the evolutionary biology of 
birds and relatives, using the guiding principles of population 
genetics, geographic variation, genome evolution, systematics 
and natural history. 

Current projects include utilizing genomic technologies to 
examine sex-chromosome and genome evolution across the 
reptile-bird transition, speciation analysis and phylogeography 
in Australian and North American birds, as well as genomics 
of host-parasite co-evolution in house finches and their 
bacterial pathogens. 

Brian D. Farrell 

Professor of Biology 
Curator of Entomology 

Prof. Farrell's research is 
broadly concerned with 
whether the diversity of 
species on Earth is a cause 
or consequence of the 
diverse roles different 
species play in ecosystems, 
particularly between insects 
and plants. 

The Farrell lab serves as a base 
for the Beetle Tree of Life 
project, a collaborative and 
comprehensive phylogenetic 
study of this most diverse 
group of animals. 

Gonzalo Giribet 

Professor of Biology 

Curator of Invertebrate Zoology 

Prof. Giribet's primary 
research focuses on the 
evolution, systematics and 
biogeography of invertebrate 
animals. Current projects 
in the Giribet lab include 
multidisciplinary studies for 
Assembling the Bivalve Tree 
of Life and for assessing deep 
molluscan phylogeny, as well 
as multiple projects involving 
research on arthropod 
systematics and biogeography, sponges, sipunculans, 
platyhelminths and onychophorans. He is also interested in 
philosophical aspects of sequence data analysis, emphasizing 
homology-related issues. 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 

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James Hanken 

Professor of Biology 

Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology 

Curator of Herpetology 

MCZ Director 

Prof. Hanken utilizes laboratory- 
based analyses and field surveys 
to examine morphological 
evolution, developmental 
biology and systematics of 
amphibians. Current areas of research include the evolution 
of craniofacial patterning; the developmental basis of life- 
history evolution; and systematics, taxonomy and evolution 
of neotropical and Asian salamanders. 

Prof. Hanken also chairs the Steering Committee of the 
Encyclopedia of Life ( . 

Farish A. Jenkins, Jr. 

Professor of Biology 

Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology 

Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology 

Prof. Jenkins' research interests 
are broadly in the area of 
vertebrate evolution, focusing 
on comparative anatomy of fossil 
and recent vertebrates and the 
evolutionary pathways of structural 
and functional development. 
Prof. Jenkins maintains active field research in vertebrate 
paleontology and, in 2006, was part of an expedition that 
discovered Tiktaalik roseae, the missing link between fish and 
land animals, in the Canadian Arctic. 

Hopi E. Hoekstra 

John L. Loeb Associate Professor of 
Natural Sciences 
Curator of Mammalogy 

Prof. Hoekstra combines field and 
laboratory work to understand the evolution 
of mammalian diversity from morphology 
to behavior. Her research focuses on 
the genetic basis of adaptive variation — 
identifying both the ultimate causes, such as 
the strength and agent of natural selection, 
and the proximate mechanisms, such as the ■ 
underlying molecular and developmental 
changes, responsible for traits that help 
organisms survive and reproduce in the wild. 

The Hoekstra lab contributes to a genomics 
revolution in natural history studies, 
tracking down genes that contribute to 
variation in wild populations. Members of 
the lab use an integrative approach that 
combines molecular genetic techniques, 
theoretical modeling, experimental tests, 
breeding studies and fieldwork. 

Research in the Hoekstra lab focuses on understanding how biological variation is 
generated and maintained in natural populations. Of particular interest is the role 
natural selection plays in producing variation within a population (i.e., adaptation) 
as well as generating differences that lead to new species (i.e., speciation). 

The lab is currently studying genetics, development and evolution of color 
and patterning; the molecular basis of reproductive traits associated with 
sexual selection; genetic architecture and evolution of behavior; and genetics 
of speciation. In addition to Prof. Hoekstra, the lab is comprised of seven 
postdoctoral associates, six graduate students, two visiting scientists, several 
undergraduates and a dog named Summit. 


Jonathan B. Losos 

Monique and Philip Lehner Professor for 
the Study of Latin America 
Curator of Herpetology 

Prof. Losos' research focuses on 
the behavioral and evolutionary 
ecology of lizards, specifically 
how lizards interact with their 
environment and how lizard clades 
have diversified evolutionarily. His 
laboratory integrates approaches 
from systematics, ecology, behavior, 
genetics and functional morphology, 
taking both observational and 
experimental approaches in the field 
and in the laboratory. 

Annual Report 2009-2010 


George V. Lauder 

Professor of Biology 

Henry Bryant Bigelow Professor of 


Curator of Ichthyology 

Prof. Lauder was recently appointed 
the Henry Bryant Bigelow Professor 
of Ichthyology. His research examines 
the structure, function and evolution 
of vertebrates, particularly fishes and 
amphibians. Additional interests include 
biological fluid mechanics, theoretical 
approaches to the analysis of form and 
function in organisms, and the history and 
philosophy of morphology and physiology. 

A major theme of research in the Lauder lab is fish robotics. Lab members and 
collaborators have developed a variety of robotic test platforms to examine fin 
and body kinematic and hydrodynamic function during locomotion. Robotic 
devices have the considerable advantage over studying live fish by allowing 
a variety of programmable motions that permit investigation of discrete 
components of naturally coupled movements. 

Other research projects in the Lauder lab include hydrodynamics of locomotion 
in fishes, 3D kinematics of fish locomotion, maneuvering and stability in fish 
locomotion, evolution of functional design in fishes, and schooling behavior in 

The Lauder lab has ten lab members, including two research assistants, a 
lab manager, three graduate students, two postdoctoral fellows and two 
undergraduate students who are conducting research on fish biomechanics. 
The lab contains two aquarium rooms with individual fish habitats, a 600-gallon 
aquarium, two 300-gallon aquaria and numerous 10- to 30-gallon aquaria. 


James J. McCarthy 

Professor of Biological Oceanography 

Alexander Agassiz Professor of Biological 


Acting Curator of Malacology 

Prof. McCarthy's research focuses on 
factors that regulate the processes of 
primary production and nutrient supply 
in the ocean. 

Through controlled laboratory studies 
and field investigations, Prof. McCarthy 
and his group examine the effects 
of strong seasonal or interannual 
climate change on marine life and 
biogeochemical systems. 

Naomi E. Pierce 

Sidney A. and John Hessel 
Professor of Biology 
Curator of Entomology 

Prof. Pierce's research 
uses molecular and 
morphological data 
to reconstruct the 
evolutionary history of 
Lepidoptera. The goal 
of this research is to 
clarify the systematics 
and classification of 
these insects, and to investigate how host plant and ant 
associations have shaped their patterns of diversification. 

Robert M. 

Professor of Biology 
Curator of Marine 

Prof. Woollacott's 

research focuses 

on aspects 

of marine 

invertebrate life 

history such as 

synchronization of reproductive events and ecology and 

physiology of larvae. Topics of particular interest include 

larval dispersal and population connectivity, as well as 

human impacts on the distribution of marine organisms. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 



MCZ Emeriti 


1 ifl ! 

Kenneth J. Boss 

Faculty-Curator Emeritus 
Professor of Biology, Emeritus 

Prof. Boss, former Curator 
of Malacology, has been 
with Harvard for 40 years. 
His research focus is the 
classification, systematics and 
evolution of molluscs, using data from shell morphology, 
anatomy and zoogeography to analyze the phylogenetic 
relationships within various groups of gastropods 
and bivalves. He has also published on the history of 
malacology. Prof. Boss has contributed extensively to 
the Occasional Papers on Mollusks and formerly served 
as editor for Breviora and the Bulletin of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. 

Richard C. Lewontin 

Professor of Biology, Emeritus 
Alexander Agassiz Professor of 
Zoology, Emeritus 

An evolutionary geneticist, Prof. 

Lewontin pioneered the field of 

molecular population genetics 

by merging molecular biology 

and evolutionary theory, as 

well as the philosophical and 

social implications of genetics 

and evolutionary theory. Prof. 

Lewontin's current research 

involves computer simulation 

and evaluation of statistical tests for selection. Among his 

many books are The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change, 

Biology as Ideology: the Doctrine ofDNA; Human Diversity; and 

The Triple Helix: Gene Organism and Environment. He served 

as President of the Society for the Study of Evolution, 

the American Society of Naturalists and the Society for 

Molecular Biology and Evolution. 

A. W. "Fuzz" Crompton 

Faculty-Curator Emeritus 

Fisher Professor of Natural History, 


Prof. Crompton, former 

Curator of Mammalogy, was 

the Director of the MCZ from 

1970 to 1982 and the former 

Director of the Peabody 

Museum of Natural History, 

Yale University and the South 

African Museum, Capetown. His primary research interests 

are the origin and evolution of mammals, functional 

anatomy, neural control and evolution of feeding in recent 

and fossil vertebrates. Prof. Crompton is a fellow of the 

American Academy for Arts and Sciences and the American 

Association for the Advancement of Science. He received 

two Guggenheim fellowships for his research on vertebrate 

paleontology and functional morphology. 

Herbert W. Levi 

Faculty-Curator Emeritus 
Professor of Biology, Emeritus 

A former Curator of Arachnology, 

Prof. Levi's research focuses on 

the taxonomy of new world orb 

weaving araneid spider genera. 

The author of Spiders and Their 

Kin, as well as numerous articles 

on various spider genera, his 

research has made possible 

identification of 1,500 species 

in 66 genera in the Americas. 

Prof. Levi served as president of the International Society 

of Arachnology and, in 2007, won the ISA's Eugene Simon 

Award for lifetime achievement for his immense influence 

on spider research. He has made his extensive collection of 

drawings of orb weavers' genitalia available online. 

Edward O. Wilson 

Honorary Curator in Entomology 
Pellegrino University Professor, Emeritus 

Prof. Wilson is considered the founder of sociobiology and evolutionary 
psychology and has developed the basis of modern biodiversity conservation. 
He has received many of the world's leading prizes in recognition of his 
research and environmental activism. He was awarded two Pulitzer Prizes for 
his books The Ants (1990, with Bert Holldobler) and On Human Nature (1978). 
In 2007, Prof. Wilson received the Technology, Entertainment, Design (TED) 
Prize, where he articulated the concept of the Encyclopedia of Life — 
a contemporary, dynamic web page for every named species. 

Annual Report 2009-2010 


OEB 167: Herpetology 

OEB 139: Evolution of the Vertebrates 


Courses in 2009-2010 Led by 
MCZ Faculty-Curators 

Organismic and Evolutionary 

OEB 10: Foundations of Biological Diversity 
(undergraduate ) 

Brian D. Farrell (and N. Michele Holl/rook) 
An integrated approach to the diversity of 
life, emphasizing how chemical, physical, 
genetic, ecological and geologic processes 
contribute to the origin and maintenance of 
biological diversity. 

OEB 51: Biology and Evolution of 
Invertebrate Animals (undergraduate ) 

Gonzalo Giribet (and Cassandra G. Extavour) 
Introduction to invertebrate diversity with 
special emphasis on the broad diversity of 
animal forms, their adaptations to different 
ecosystems, and how these phenomena 
shape animal evolution. 

OEB 53: Evolutionary Biology 
(undergraduate ) 

Hopi E. Hoekstra (and Andrew J. Berry) 
Micro- and macro-evolution, ranging from 
population genetics through molecular evolution 
to the grand patterns of the fossil record. 

OEB 57: Animal Behavior (undergraduate) 

Naomi E. Pierce (and Bence P. Olveczky) 
A review of the behavior of animals under 
natural conditions, with emphasis on both 
mechanistic and evolutionary approaches. 




OEB 121a: Research in Comparative 
Biomechanics (undergraduate and graduate) 

Andrew A. Biewener, George V. Lauder 
(and Daniel E. Lieberman, Stacey A. Combes) 
Introduction to experimental techniques 
used to investigate the structure and 
physiology of vertebrates, where each 
instructor offers research projects that are 
undertaken in their laboratory. 

OEB 121b: Research in Comparative 
Biomechanics (undergraduate and 
graduate ) 

Andrew A. Biewener, George V. Lauder 
(and Daniel E. Lieberman, Stacey A. Combes) 
Optional extension of initial project 
undertaken in OEB 121a into a thesis 
research project. 

OEB 130: Patterns and Processes in Fish 
Diversity (undergraduate and graduate) 

George V. Lauder 

Fishes inhabit diverse aquatic environments 
including deep seas, intertidal zones, coral 
reefs, polar waters, the vast Amazonian basin 
and great East African lakes. To explore 
this unparalleled diversity, the course 
emphasizes bridging traditional academic 
boundaries with integrative analyses of 
the biology underlying rapid evolutionary 
radiations and stasis. 

OEB 139: Evolution of the Vertebrates 
(undergraduate and graduate) 

Farish A. Jenkins, Jr. 

Origination and evolution of the major 
groups of vertebrates, with emphasis 
on the anatomical and physiological 
transformations that occurred during 
the transitions to diverse lineages offish, 
amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. 

OEB 141: Biogeography (undergraduate 
and graduate) 

Gonzalo Giribet 

Biogeography aims to explain distributions 
of organisms through historical and 
ecological factors. This course focuses on 
the history of biogeographic research, 
developments in the area of historical 
biogeography and on ecological processes 
that affect distributions of whole clades. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 

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OEB 155r: Biology of Insects 
(undergraduate and graduate) 

Naomi E. Pierce (and Michael R. Canfield) 
Introduction to the major groups of 
insects — life history, morphology, physiology 
and ecology — through a combination of 
lecture, lab and field exercises. 

OEB 167: Herpetology (undergraduate 
and graduate ) 

James Hanken and Jonathan Losos 
An introduction to the biology of 
amphibians and reptiles. Lectures and 
laboratories examine the morphology, 
systematics, natural history, behavior, 
ecology, evolutionary relationships and 
biogeography of all major taxa. 

OEB 173: Comparative Biomechanics 
(undergraduate and graduate) 

Andrew A. Biewener (and Jacques Dumais) 
An exploration of how animals and plants 
contend with their physical environment, 
considering their biomaterial properties, 
structural form and mechanical interaction 
with the environment. 

OEB 231: Adaptation (graduate) 

Hopi E. Hoekstra 

This discussion-based course covers the 
latest advances in the study of adaptation 
with a focus on controversial issues and 
integrative approaches. 

OEB 234: Topics in Marine Biology 

Robert M. Woollacott 

Human impacts on marine life and 

ecosystems of the sea. 

OEB 26 lr: Developmental Mechanisms of 
Evolutionary Change (graduate) 

James Hanken (and Arkhat Abzhanov) 
Graduate seminar course in evolutionary 
developmental biology discussing the latest 
advances in understanding the cellular and 
molecular developmental mechanisms that 
underlie important evolutionary phenomena. 

OEB 275r: Phylogenetics in the Era of 
Genomics (graduate) 

Scott V. Edwards 

A survey of the changing landscape of 
molecular systematics brought on by the 
power of modern genomics. Emphasis will 
be on the challenges of combining DNA 
sequence data from many genes and the rise 
of species trees as a paradigm in systematics. 

OEB 282: Genomics and Evolution of 
Infectious Disease (graduate) 

Scott V. Edwards (and Pardis Sabeti) 
Infectious diseases rapidly evolve to evade 
our immune systems, drugs and vaccines 
to remain agents of great morbidity and 
mortality. We will investigate the genome 
evolution of these pathogens and our 
intervention strategies for them past and 

Graduate Courses of 
Reading and Research 

OEB 307: Biomechanics, Physiology and 
Musculoskeletal Biology 

Andrew A. Biewener 

OEB 310: Metazoan Systematics 

Gonzalo Giribet 

OEB 51: Biology and Evolution of 
Invertebrate Ani7nals 

OEB 167: Herpetology 


Annual Report 2009-2010 



OEB 234: Topics in Marine Biology 

OEB 320: Biomechanics and Evolution of 

George V. Lauder 

OEB 323: Advanced Vertebrate Anatomy 

Farish A. Jenkins, Jr. 

OEB 325: Marine Biology 

Robert M. Woollacott 

OEB 334: Behavioral Ecology 

Naomi E. Pierce 

OEB 341: Coevolution 

Brian D. Farrell 

OEB 345: Biological Oceanography 

James J. McCarthy 

OEB 355: Evolutionary Developmental 

James Hanken 

OEB 362: Research in Molecular Evolution 

Scott V. Edwards 

OEB 367: Evolutionary and Ecological 

Jonathan Losos 

OEB 370: Mammalian Evolutionary Genetics 

Hopi E. Hoekstra 

Freshman Seminar 

Freshman Seminar 22t: Why We Animals 
Sing (the Way We Do) (freshman only) 

Brian D. Farrell 

Explores the sounds and structures of 
the different kinds of acoustic animals — 
including birds, mammals, frogs and 
insects — and the different kinds of habitats 
in which they produce their songs and calls. 
Students learn to imitate other species by 
slowing down their calls and will explore the 
evolution and biology of music in humans. 

Life Sciences 

LIFESCI 2: Evolutionary Human Physiology 
and Anatomy (undergraduate) 

George V. Lauder, Andrew A. Biewener (and 
Peter T. Ellison, Daniel E. Lieberman) 
Explores human anatomy and physiology 
from an integrated framework, combining 
functional, comparative and evolutionary 
perspectives on how organisms work. 

OEB 130: Patterns and Processes in 
Fish Diversity 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 



Core Curriculum 

SCIENCE B-53: Marine Biology 
(undergraduate ) 

Robert M. Woollacott 

Explores the life histories and adaptations 
of marine life and the ecosystems of the sea. 
Emphasis is placed on human impacts on 
marine organisms and ecosystems. 

SCIENCE B-65: Evolutionary Biology 
(undergraduate ) 

Jonathan Losos 

The process of biological evolution, the 
way the biosphere and its inhabitants have 
changed through time, and how human 
actions affect the evolutionary process. 

Environmental Science 
and Public Policy 

ESPP 90e: Conservation Genetics 
(undergraduate ) 

H. Bradley Shaffer; Hrdy Visiting Fellow 
Genetics, genomics and conservation 
biology have a long and complex history 
of interaction. This course examines the 
ways genome-enabled science can be 
used to guide effective conservation and 
management of endangered taxa. 

Harvard Extension School and 
Harvard Summer School 

BIOS E-225: Human Impacts on 
Marine Communities 

Robert M. Woollacott 
How anthropogenic-driven events are 
impacting the structure and function of 
marine communities. 

BIOS S-74: Marine Life and Ecosystems 
of the Sea 

Robert M. Woollacott 

The life history and adaptations of marine 
life and the ecosystems of the sea, with 
emphasis on understanding the fragility 
and resilience of marine systems in the face 
of anthropogenically driven perturbations. 

BIOL S-112: Study Abroad at Oxford: 
Darwin and the Origins of Evolutionary 

Naomi E. Pierce (and Andrew Berry) 
The history of thought on evolution from 
its mythic beginnings in creation stories 
through the theories of Charles Darwin. 

BIOL S-113: Study Abroad at Oxford: 
Darwin and Contemporary Evolutionary 

Naomi E. Pierce (and Andrew Berry) 
The history of evolutionary biology in the 
post-Darwinian world, following strands of 
thought either introduced or ignored by 
Darwin in On the Origin of Species through to 
the present. 

OEB 167: Herpetology 

Graduate students tour the MCZ 
collections during the OEB Open House 
for the Harvard Integrated Life Sciences 
(HILS) graduate program. 

«■■ iip'»"/»»«. 

Annual Report 2009-2010 


Collections on the Move 

In 2008, the MCZ welcomed the Northwest Building as a new neighbor to 
Harvard's north campus. Soon, specimens from tiny shells to preserved crane 
and mountain lion study skins will call the building home. 

For 150 years the MCZ has been amassing a 
historic and scientifically priceless collection, 
which is currently estimated at more than 
21 million specimens. This collection 
continues to grow, challenging existing 
storage spaces and making the completion of 
the Northwest Building eagerly anticipated. 
Construction has begun on two of the 
building's four below-ground floors to outfit 
almost 48,000 gross square feet for state-of-the 
art laboratories, special preparations areas, a 
classroom and climate-controlled collections 
storage rooms for the MCZ. 

"Once the space was secured, the question 
became which collections to move," 
said Linda Ford, Director of Collections 
Operations. "It's been a long process of 
defining what we have, seeing what fits and 
how much space it will need." 

There were numerous factors in the 
complex selection process, conducted with 
the assistance of Toronto-based consulting 
firm WeatherstonBruer Associates, which 

The Northwest Building 

generated multiple scenarios for evaluation. 
On a macro level, the process considered the 
space available, the size of the collections, 
the space they would need when uncrowded, 
the number of people who work with them, 
special labs and preparation areas, and the 
growth of the collections and their associated 
staff over the next twenty years. 

On a more discrete level, the size of the 
specimens and their storage medium became 
important. "Dry" collections were welcome, 
but alcohol-based or "wet" collections were 
excluded due to building codes. Oversized 
specimens, such as large fossils and mounted 
animals, were also not included because of 
space limitations. 

As a result of this long and detailed 
assessment, it was decided to relocate all or 
part of eight collections to floors B2 and 
B3. These include the whole of Vertebrate 
Paleontology and Invertebrate Paleontology, 
and the dry collections of Mammalogy, 
Ornithology, Malacology and Marine 
Invertebrates. Collections moving in part 
are Entomology fossils and dry collections of 
Invertebrate Zoology. 

The installation will occur in three phases 
over the next three academic years. The B2 
level, consisting of preparation labs, receiving 
space and the Mammalogy management and 
collections space, will be completed during 
AY 2010-11. 

Next will be the installation of B3 South, 
planned for AY 201 1-1 2. This space will 
house the management and collections areas 
for Ornithology and possibly management 
areas for Invertebrate Paleontology and 
Malacology. Upon completion of the second 
phase, the 420 Blaschka "glass animals" — 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 


which require similar temperature and 
humidity control for preservation as other 
specimens — will also move to specialized 

B3 North, housing the management area 
for Vertebrate Paleontology and collections 
space for Invertebrate Paleontology, 
Vertebrate Paleontology, Malacology, 
Marine Invertebrates, Invertebrate Zoology 
and Entomology fossils, is scheduled for 
completion in AY 201 2-1 3. 

One attractive aspect of the move is the 
installation of new compacting cabinets, 
which hold more specimens than older- 
style fixed cabinets and provide improved 
access to specimens. To visualize the 
volume of space required to properly house 
these massive collections in the Northwest 
Building, just imagine 3,386 standard 
household refrigerators. 

The Mammalogy collection will be the 
first to move in AY 201 0-11, and the 
department has been readying its specimens 
since March 2010. "Over several months, 
Mammalogy staff and casual help have 
been hard at work. The collection is being 
inventoried and reorganized to streamline 
the move, and cleaned when necessary," 
said Judy Chupasko, Curatorial Associate 
in Mammalogy. Immediately prior to the 
move, specimens will be secured, packed and 
labeled for transport. Similar preparations 
are ongoing in the other departments. 

In time, bright and spacious work areas will 
greet researchers — including MCZ faculty- 
curators, students and visiting researchers 
from around the world — as they use the 
MCZ's ever-expanding collections to unlock 
life's mysteries. 

Releasing the Whales 

And what better way to welcome visitors 
than with two spectacular whale skeletons 
in the lobby of the Northwest Building? 
Dramatically displayed in natural postures, 
the bottlenose whale is arranged in a twisting 
dive down to the lower level, while the 

killer whale is poised in a 
jumping breach position. 

The 21-foot killer whale 
and the 24-foot bottlenose 
were collected near the 
Faroe Islands in the 1880s. 
Both specimens were 
displayed in the MCZ Sea 
Mammal Room before 
being removed for space 
reasons in the 1930s. The 
skeletons were stored in 
the MCZ attic, a common 
practice by museums at 
the time because skeletons 
were thought to be hardy. 
However, we now know 
that skeletons are among 
the most fragile museum 
specimens, and variable 
temperature and humidity 
are exactly the types 
of conditions that are 

According to MCZ Director James Hanken, 
the installation has multiple benefits: 
restoring and displaying the two 
specimens, enhancing the building's 
lobby and making room in the MCZ 
attic. "We've wanted to move the 
whales out of the attic for several 
years," Hanken said, "and the 
Northwest Building provided the 
perfect opporumity. It's not too often 
that we find space to display one 
whale, much less two." 

To ready the specimens for their new 
installation, they were removed from 
the attic and sent to the specialty 
preparation firm Whales and Nails in 
Seal Cove, Maine. The firm cleaned 
and degreased the skeletons, then 
performed repairs and created 
models of missing bones. During the 
day-and-a-half installation in January 2010, 
the firm hung the whales from specially 
reinforced steel frames in the lobby. 

Linda Ford and Judy Chupasko 

Annual Report 2009-2010 




1 1 







1 10 M V) 40 90 U 




• ^ 



'There is no better way to be reminded of the 
majesty and the sheer mass of these whales 
than to watch their skeletons being hoisted 
up some 50 feet into the air," said Hopi E. 
Hoekstra, John L. Loeb Associate Professor of 
Natural Sciences and Curator of Mammals. 

Using the main floor railing as the waterline, 
the bottlenose is shown heading for a deep 
dive, while the surface-dwelling killer whale 
is emerging from the "ocean" in a typical spy- 
hop breach maneuver. 

Digital Data: More than a Photo 

Namral history collections are of vital 
importance in understanding the critical 
issues of our time: climate change, 
biodiversity loss, emerging diseases, invasive 
species and other environmental challenges. 

But in order for collections to be of use, 
they must be accessible to researchers. Much 
of the data in natural science collections is 
"dark," meaning it is not available digitally. 


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Traditionally, researchers have had to travel 
to examine the specimens in person, an 
expensive and time-consuming effort. 

Online availability of the collections is a high- 
priority directive for the MCZ, and multiple 
Museum-wide, cross-disciplinary initiatives 
are underway to promote digitization of 

the collections, enhance data quality and 
mobilize this data so it can be used. 

One of the challenges in digitization is to 
effectively capture data from individual, often 
fragile, and historically important specimens. 
"The MCZ Lepidoptera Rapid Data Capture 
Project demonstrates our successful method 
of obtaining robust data associated with the 
approximately 200,000 butterfly specimens," 
says Rod Eastwood, MCZ postdoctoral fellow. 
'The project does this by separating specimen 
handling from data capture, imaging both 
labels and specimens, then capturing label 
data from the images." 

The workflow of this project occurs in 
three steps. First, an entomologist creates 
taxonomic labels with machine-readable 
barcodes for each species or subspecies. Next, 
staff remove each specimen from its tray, 
placing it on a carrier with the taxonomic 
label and pin labels, and then making a 
digital image. Lastly, a database record is 
created automatically and augmented with 
a transcription of the pin label data, then 
finalized when an entomologist performs a 
quality check. Data are then made available 
for mobilization and global analysis. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 



Another innovative digitization effort is 
Aves 3D, funded by the National Science 
Foundation and headed by Scott Edwards, 
Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology and 
Curator of Ornithology at the MCZ, and 
Leon Claessens, Assistant Professor of Biology 
at the College of the Holy Cross. Aves 3D 
uses advanced laser scanners to create three- 
dimensional digital models of the 12,000 bird 
skeletons in the MCZ collection. 

'The Aves 3D database is making a wide 
representation of both living and extinct bird 
species accessible to scientists, educators, 
and the public," explains Professor Edwards. 
"Users can rotate and zoom in on the 
breastbone of an American flamingo, the 
wishbone of a king penguin or the skull of 
an extinct dodo." 

Raphus cucullatus 

(c) Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology and Aves 3D 

The effort, produced largely through 
undergraduate student research, allows for 
the rapid global dissemination of three- 
dimensional digital data in a format ready for 
quantitative and qualitative analysis. It also 
serves as an online digital archive of museum 
collections, helping to increase use of these 
resources while reducing handling of the 
actual specimens. Explore it at 

Data from both projects will eventually 
migrate to the master Museum-wide database, 
MCZbase. This migration effort began 
more than a year ago and MCZbase now 
contains almost 900,000 records representing 
approximately seven million specimens. 
Specimen records from the entirety of the 

Herpetology, Mammalogy, Malacology and 
Ichthyology collections have been migrated 
to the database. Migration of newly captured 
data from these collections is ongoing, and 
migration of the Invertebrate and Vertebrate 
Paleontology collections has begun. 

Searching capability includes current MCZ 
data, and in some cases specimen images, for 
the migrated collections. MCZbase shares 
data with discipline-specific and global 
initiatives, such as the Global Biodiversity 
Information Facility (GBIF), Encyclopedia 
of Life (EOL), MaNIS, HerpNET, ORNIS, 
FishNet 2 and VertNet. 

In this way "dark" data comes into the 
light, facilitating diverse research and 
educational projects and leading to a better 
understanding of 
species diversity, 
anatomy, function 
and evolution. 

Annual Report 2009-20 1 



MCZ Research Making Headlines 

Sperm Team Up for Speed, Preferring Brothers 

It's a fact: males compete for females. 
It's also known that faster swimming 
sperm have a competitive advantage 
in their race to fertilize the egg. But 
sperm recognizing and teaming up 
with their brethren to increase their 
speed? This is news. 

In research published in Nature, 
Heidi S. Fisher and Hopi E. Hoekstra 

demonstrate that sperm from two 
species of closely related mice, 
Peromyscus polionotus and Peromyscus 
maniculatus, behave very differently. 

In the promiscuous deer mouse, 
P. maniculatus, females mate with 
multiple males, while the oldfield 
mouse, P. polionotus, is monogamous. 
Postdoctoral fellow Fisher extracted 
sperm from several individuals of each 
species and fluorescently dyed each sample 
red or green. Creating various combinations 
of sperm from each species, the team 
observed the sperm's behavior under a 

Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree 

Evolutionary biologist Jonathan B. Losos 
has authored Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: 
Ecology and Adaptive Radiation ofAnoles, a work 
that reviews and synthesizes decades of study 
and an enormous volume of literature on the 
Caribbean lizards of the genus Anolis. 

Adaptive radiation — possibly the single 
most important source of biological 
diversity in the living world — results when 
a single ancestral species gives rise to many 
descendants, each adapted to a different part 
of the environment. One of the best-studied 
examples involves Caribbean Anolis lizards. 

With about 400 species, Anolis has played a 
critical role in the development of ecological 
theory. It has become a model system 
exemplifying the integration of ecological, 
evolutionary and behavioral studies to 
understand evolutionary diversification. 

The sperm of both species clustered together 
for increased speed, linking up through 
hooked structures and either clustering 
together at their heads or forming "trains," 
linking head to body. 

However, sperm from the promiscuous deer 
mice strongly preferred to group with sperm 
from the same species and even from the 
same individual. Sperm of the monogamous 
oldfield mice, on the other hand, grouped 
indiscriminately with sperm from other 
individuals and species, a condition that is 
unlikely to occur in nature. 

These findings suggest that sperm 
in promiscuous species have evolved 
mechanisms to identify their kindred sperm, 
whereas sperm in monogamous species have 
not found these mechanisms necessary. 

The work of Fisher and Prof. Hoekstra, 
funded by the National Institutes of Health 
and the Arnold and Mabel Beckman 
Foundation, received extensive media 

Fisher HS, Hoekstra HE (2010) Competition drives 
cooperation among closely-related sperm of deer mice. 
Nature 463:801-803. 

In his book, Professor Losos illustrates 
how different scientific approaches to the 
questions of adaptation and diversification 
can be integrated and examines evolutionary 
and ecological questions of interest to a 
broad range of biologists. 

In October 2009, the MCZ hosted 125 anole 
biologists from eight countries for the 6 th 
Anolis Symposium. On this occasion, the 
newly renovated herpetology library was 
dedicated in honor of Ernest E. Williams, 
the MCZ's late curator of herpetology 
and a pioneer in researching Anolis. Prof. 
Williams inspired Prof. Losos and many other 
Harvard-trained biologists to research the 
genus, making it an important group to study 
ecological and evolutionary principles. 

Losos JB (2009) Ecology and Adaptive Radiation ofAnoles. 
Berkeley: University of California Press. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 



Robotic Fins Provide Insight into Fish Propulsion 

Investigating the way a fish moves through 
water involves detailed study of biology, 
hydrodynamics and the mechanics of motion. 
But studying live fish, and coaxing them into 
performing all the necessary movements, can 
be a challenging and time-consuming way to 
capture data. 

In a series of articles published by 
George V. Lauder and the Lauder lab in 
collaboration with colleagues, they discuss 
the advantages of and findings from their 
use of biorobotic fins. The researchers 
developed the artificial fins through 
detailed analysis of the anatomy, movement 
and behavior of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis 
macrochirus) . 

In the lab, robotic models of the pectoral 
fins (those close to the head) and the caudal 
(tail) fins were created by modeling the 
mechanical properties of the biological fins, 
captured by filming fish in a flow tank with 
multiple, synchronized high-speed cameras. 

Unlike earlier models with stiff fins, 
these biorobotic fins bend. This enables 
understanding of how fin shape creates 
different forces and movements. Using 
robotic fins also permits analysis of quick, 
systematic changes to the fin and the manner 
in which the fin is used. 

Professor Lauder and colleagues discovered 
that relatively subtle changes in a fin's 
shape and movement can significantly alter 
the magnitude and direction of the force 
it produces. When executing a maneuver, 
a fish contracts muscles that control its 
fins in order to modulate the stiffness 
and curvature of the fin rays. To further 
investigate this fin-fluid interaction, the 
team's future work will include biorobotic 
modeling of the sensory perceptions and 
motor control of the fins. 

Lauder GV, Anderson EJ, Tangorra J, Madden PG 
(2007) Fish biorobotics: kinematics and hydrodynamics 
of self-propulsion. Journal of Experimental Biology 

Our Planet and Its Life, Origins and Futures 

James J. McCarthy, in his presidential 
address to the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, reflected on "Our 
Planet and Its Life, Origins, and Futures." 
This address, delivered in the year marking 
the 150 th anniversary of Darwin's On the 
Origin of Species, began by looking back to 
that time. Inventions and discoveries in 1859 
made possible the combustion of coal, oil 
and natural gas that fueled the industrial era. 

Since then the human population has 
increased from 1 billion to 6.8 billion and 
consumption of the Earth's resources has 
grown even more. Global use of fossil fuels 
provides about 80% of the energy we use, 
but the physical and biological systems that 
remove the resulting carbon dioxide waste 
from the atmosphere are unable to keep 
up. More than half of the C0 2 released by 
human activities today will remain in the 
atmosphere for up to a century. 

In his talk and the subsequent paper 
published in Science, Professor McCarthy 
offers a survey of the development of climate 

research, technology, thinking 
and issues. He stresses that 
in order to diminish the 
profoundly negative and costly 
impacts of climate change 
and sea level rise decades 
from now, action must be 
taken today to reduce C0 9 

Prof. McCarthy ends on an 
optimistic note, recognizing 
the increasing role scientists 
are playing in the U.S. 
administration's pursuit and 
application of science in this country. He also 
is hopeful that cooperative efforts among 
the Earth and life sciences, and enhanced 
partnerships with the engineering and 
social science communities, will provide new 
understanding as society steers to a future 
that diminishes risk to the well being of 
human and other life on the planet. 

McCarthy JJ (2009) Reflections on: Our planet and its life, 
origins, and futures. Science 326:1646-1655. 

James J. McCarthy 

Annual Report 2009-2010 



Another Evolutionary Mystery Solved 

A clear picture of evolutionary relationships 
among species is needed to reconstruct how 
they diversified physically and ecologically 
over time. 

In the animal tree of life, placement of 
the flatworm group Acoelomorpha has 
great importance for understanding 
critical events in animal evolution, in 
particular the origin and evolution of 
numerous organ systems. Yet, positioning 
this group has been problematic for 
taxonomists due to their rapid evolution 
and a lack of genomic data for certain 
acoelomorph groups. 

In a study published in Proceedings of the 
Royal Society of London, Gonzalo Giribet and 
an international team of scientists place 
Acoelomorpha at the first evolutionary 
branching for bilateral animals. The 
researchers determined that this group of 
simple worms is a product of the deepest 
evolutionary split within bilateral creatures — 
multicellular organisms that, like humans, have 
bilaterally symmetrical body forms. 

The team employed a genetic sequencing 
technique called expressed sequence tags, 
which utilized many genes from a large 
number of species. To obtain and analyze 
this massive amount of data, the team 
designed new automated methods for 
identifying and selecting common genes 
across different species and developed 
highly effective supercomputing tools 
to reconstruct relationships from DNA 

The study, funded by the National Science 
Foundation's Protosome Assembling 
the Tree of Life Project, represents the 
most computationally intensive genetic 
sequencing analysis to date: 2.25 million 
supercomputer processor hours were 
required to obtain the results. 

Hejnol A, Obst M, Stamatakis A, Ott M, Rouse GW, 
Edgecombe GD, Martinez P, BaguriaJ, Bailly X, Jondelius 
U, Wiens M, Muller WEG, Seaver E, Wheeler WC, 
Martindale MQ, Giribet G, Dunn, CW (2009) Assessing 
the root of bilaterian animals with scalable phylogenomic 
methods. Proceedings of tlie Royal Society B 276:4261-4270. 

Genetic Sex Determination Populates Prehistoric Seas 

New analysis of extinct sea creatures 
suggests that the transition from egg-laying 
to delivering live-born young opened up 
evolutionary pathways that allowed these 
ancient species to adapt to life in open 
oceans and thrive. 

Postdoctoral fellows Chris L. 
Organ and Daniel E. Janes 

report in Nature that the 
evolution of live-born young 
in extinct marine reptiles — 
mosasaurs, sauropterygians 
and ichthyosaurs — hinged 
on the evolution of sex- 
determining genes. Freed 
from the need to move and 
nest on land, extreme physical 
adaptations for life in the open ocean 
evolved in each group, such as the fluked 
tails, dorsal fins and wing-shaped limbs of 

In many egg-laying species, incubation 
temperature is the primary determinant 
of the sex of offspring. Determining sex 
by genetic means allowed marine reptiles 

to give birth in the water to live young, 
as opposed to laying eggs on a nesting 
beach, and may have played a surprisingly 
strong role in adaptive radiations and in 
colonization of the world's oceans by a 
diverse array of species. 

Mosasaurs, sauropterygians and 
ichthyosaurs spread throughout the 
Mesozoic seas between 251 million and 
100 million years ago. All three groups 
of extinct marine reptiles breathed air, 
but they evolved other adaptations to life 
in the open ocean, such as fin-shaped 
limbs, streamlined bodies and changes 
in bone structure. Some evolved into 
enormous predators, such as porpoise-like 
ichthyosaurs that grew to more than 20 
meters long. Ichthyosaurs, and possibly 
mosasaurs, even evolved tail-first birth, an 
adaptation that helps the air-breathing 
young of modern whales and porpoises 
avoid drowning during birth. 

Organ CL, Janes DE, Meade A, Pagel M (2009) Genotypic 
sex determination enabled adaptive radiations of extinct 
marine reptiles. Nature 461:389-392. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 


Altruistic Army Ants 

Colonies of army ants are usually antagonistic 
to one another, attacking soldiers from 
rival colonies in border disputes that 
keep the colonies separate. But research 
by postdoctoral fellow Daniel Kronauer 
demonstrates that colonies can sometimes 
be cooperative instead of combative. In cases 
when an army ant colony loses its queen, 
its workers are absorbed, not killed, by 
neighboring colonies, and within days are 
treated as part of the new colony. 

Army ant colonies are dominated by a single 
large queen who produces the eggs that 
become the colony's millions of workers. 
Colonies quickly disappear when she dies, 
raising the question of what happens to all 
those workers. 

To investigate this phenomenon, Kronauer 
and colleagues removed queens from 
multiple colonies of African army ants, 
Dorylus molestus, on the eastern slopes 
of Mt. Kenya. Using genetic analysis, 
the researchers determined that most 
of the queenless workers simply joined 
a neighboring colony, slowly losing the 
distinctive odor of their former colony and 
becoming fully integrated. The benefits for 

Hrdy Fellow H. Bradley Shaffer 

the absorbing colony are clear: increased 
size leads to improved foraging efficiency, 
competitiveness and reproductive output. 

In one queenless colony, however, workers 

produced a small 

brood of winged 

males. The researchers 

removed these males 

for analysis, but in an 

undisturbed colony 

they would fly off 

looking for young 

unmated queens. 

Although this strategy 

does provide some 

chance of passing 

along the colony's 

genes, the small 

number of winged 

males makes the efficiency of this strategy 

doubtful. The study was published in 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. 

Kronauer DJC, Schoning C, d'Ettorre P, Boomsma 
JJ (2010) Colony fusion and worker reproduction 
after queen loss in army ants. Proceedings of the Royal 
Society B 277:755-763. 


H. Bradley Shaffer, Professor of Evolution 
and Ecology at the University of California 
at Davis, was awarded the 2009-2010 Sarah 
and Daniel Hrdy Fellowship in Conservation 
Biology from the Department of Organismic 
and Evolutionary Biology. Prof. Shaffer's 
work was conducted in the MCZ's 
herpetology department in association with 
James Hanken. 

Prof. Shaffer, with the assistance of Harvard 
undergraduates Jennifer Woolridge and 
Tucker Pforzheimer, created micro-CT 
(computed tomography) scans of more than 
250 of the world's 300-plus species of living 
turtles and tortoises, including 100 species 
in the MCZ collections. This image database 
will serve as a resource to study the evolution 
of shell and skull morphology during the 
210 million years of turtle evolution. The 
database will also be a valuable resource for 
setting conservation priorities for critically 
endangered species of turtles and tortoises. 

In addition to his research, Prof. Shaffer 
developed and taught a new undergraduate 
seminar course, Conservation Genetics, in 
the fall semester. The course examined the 
ways in which genome-enabled science can 
be used to guide effective conservation and 
management of endangered taxa. 

On November 5, 2009, Prof. Shaffer 
delivered the Hrdy Fellowship annual 
lecture, "Making population biology relevant 
to conservation: The California Tiger 
Salamander as a test case." In his lecture, 
Prof. Shaffer discussed key results of his 
lab's successful efforts to bring landscape 
genetics, field ecology, phylogeography and 
population genetics to bear on achieving 
listed status for the California tiger 
salamander under the U.S. Endangered 
Species Act. 

H. Bradley Shaffer and Jennifer Woohidge 

Annual Report 2009-2010 



Gisele Kawauchi 

Breda Zimkus 

Projects & Initiatives 

Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) 

2010 EOL Rubenstein Fellows 

The 2010 EOL Rubenstein Fellows comprise 
17 early-career scientists from institutions 
around the globe. Through the generosity of 
David M. Rubenstein, the EOL Rubenstein 
Fellows program provides part-time funding 
that enables these scientists to compile 
authoritative information about biological 
species and make it freely available to 
anyone in the world through the EOL 

Two of the EOL Fellows are based at the 
MCZ: Gisele Kawauchi, postdoctoral fellow 
in invertebrate zoology in the Giribet 
lab, and Breda Zimkus, former graduate 
student in herpetology in the Hanken lab 
and project manager for the MCZ's new 
Genetics Resources Facility. 

For her Encyclopedia of Life project, 
Dr. Kawauchi will assemble an online guide 
for collecting and dissecting Sipuncula, or 
peanut worms. She also will build pages 
on EOL for each of the approximate 320 
Sipuncula species to facilitate identification 
and systematic studies of these marine 
invertebrates. Dr. Zimkus will assemble 
EOL species pages to assist in the 
identification and conservation of sub- 
Saharan amphibians. 

Education Lifedesks 

Students in Jim Hanken and Jonathan Losos's 
spring class OEB 167: Herpetology and George 
Lauder's OEB 130: Patterns & Processes in Fish 
Diversity are authoring EOL species pages 
using Education Lifedesks, an online writing 
and editing application that was developed by 
the EOL Learning and Education Group at 
the MCZ and the EOL Informatics Group at 
the Marine Biological Laboratory. Students 
populate species pages with data on behavior, 
distribution, habitat, morphology and more. 
The information is then posted for review 
and editing by their instructors before it is 
approved and published to EOL. Graduate 
students Luke Mahler in herpetology and 
Jeanette Lim and Erin Blevins in ichthyology 
are overseeing the editing and revision 
process for their respective classes. Lee 
Dieterich TO will be working as a summer 

MCZ-EOL intern to assist Luke Mahler in the 
review and editing process for herpetology. 

EOL Synthesis Meeting on Deep-Sea Fishes 

The MCZ hosted an EOL Synthesis Meeting 
on Deep-Sea Fishes in May 2010. The 
meeting gathered experts and aspiring 
deep-sea systematists to catalog the world's 
deep-sea species and invigorate the pace 
of discovery in the benthic realm. The 
meeting produced an annotated inventory 
of all deep-sea vertebrates, those fishes 
adapted to life in Earth's most harsh and 
barren oceanic waters. The inventory will 
make a major contribution to EOL species 

New Field Guide Tool 

EOL's Learning and Education Group, 
which is based at the MCZ, is developing 
an online Field Guide Tool that will enable 
anyone to organize EOL species information 
for a particular location anywhere on Earth. 
The field guides will be highly customizable, 
allowing users to define parameters for 
species based on personal interests. The 
group is currently testing various formats 
and options for electronic field guides and 
gathering ideas and feedback from the 
general public. 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 

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Harvard Museum of Natural History 

The Harvard Museum of Natural History 
opened a new multimedia exhibition in 
May 2010. Headgear: The Natural History 
of Horns and Antlers, which runs through 
January 2, 2011, explores fascinating 
questions about how horns and antlers 
are formed, how they evolved and how 
they function. Drawn from the MCZ's 
remarkable collections, the exhibition 
features a dramatic array of horns, antlers 
and head mounts of a wide variety of 
species. Visitors can touch real specimens, 
learn about horn-like structures in animals 
that range from tiny beetles to massive 
dinosaurs, and view 3D diorama and video 
presentations that illustrate the use of 
horns and antlers in combat. 

Through the generosity of MCZ Faculty 
member Paul Zofnass '69, M.B.A. '73, as 
well as other individual donors, HMNH will 
create New England Forests: The Zofnass 
Family Gallery. Opening in Spring 2011, 
this permanent multimedia exhibition will 
utilize research and collections from the 
MCZ and other parts of the University to 
explore the natural history, environmental 
significance, historical development and 
conservation of New England forests. 
The exhibition will present the latest 
research on the role of forests in carbon 

Biodiversity Heritage Library 

sequestration, address the threats created 
by invasive species, and demonstrate the 
methods and tools that scientists use to 
investigate these issues. 

Constructed in 1872, the Great Mammal 
Hall is the oldest and most dramatic public 
gallery in the Harvard Museum of Natural 
History. Renovated as part of the MCZ's 
150 th anniversary, the animal mounts 
were cleaned and the glass display cases 
were restored to their 19 th -century colors. 
A group of undergraduates, supervised 
by mammal curator Hopi E. Hoekstra, 
reevaluated the taxonomy 
of the animals and arranged 
them accordingly. The century- 
old cases now reflect the 
most recent advances in our 
understanding of mammalian 
relationships, and round 
red stickers on some of the 
labels communicate current 
conservation status, including 
in some cases "threatened" or 
"extinct." A video installation, 
made possible through a 
donation by Harvard alumnus 
John D. Freedman '84, shows the history 
of the Great Mammal Hall. The gallery 
reopened October 16, 2009. 

Headgear: The Natural History of 
Horns and Antlers 

The Great Mammal Hall 

On June 27, 2010, the Biodiversity Heritage 
Library (BHL) received the Association for 
Library Collections & Technical Services 
Outstanding Collaboration Citation at the 
American Library Association's annual 
meeting in Washington, D.C. BHL has 
fulfilled a scholarly need by providing open 
access to a large body of historical materials on 
biodiversity within the biological, ecological 
and environmental sciences. Joseph deVeer, 
Head of Technical Services at the MCZ's Ernst 
Mayr Library, works with the twelve member 
institutions to digitize rare collections and 
artwork. BHL also is a key component of the 
Encyclopedia of Life, providing online access 
to more than 31 million pages of digitized 
biodiversity literature via EOL species pages. 

BHL is going global, with 
BHL-Europe, BHL-China, and 
BHL-Australia well underway 
and preliminary discussions 
occurring with Bibliotecha 
Alexandrina for an Arab- 
language BHL. Staff from 
BHL, including Ernst Mayr 
Library's Connie Rinaldo, 
traveled to Vienna in May 2010 
to discuss project details and 
developments with the BHL- 
Europe team. BHL-Europe is 
now accessible via Europeana, a virtual 
European library, which aims to make 
Europe's cultural and scientific resources 
accessible for all. 



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Annual Report 2009-2010 



E.O. Wilson Delivers Prather Lectures 

Edward O. Wilson presented 
Harvard's annual John M. Prather 
Lectures in Biology in April 2010, 
encapsulating his 55-year career 
at the university and looking 
forward to the critical challenges 
ahead. In his first of three lectures, 
"Biodiversity and the Future of 
Biology," Prof. Wilson discussed the 
richness of global biodiversity and 
the dangers posed by accelerated 
erosion of ecosystems to support 
this biodiversity. Prof. Wilson 
urged greater attention to and 
examination of the living world, 
which would open a major new 
scientific front of biology for the 
21 st century. In his second lecture, 
"The Superorganism," Wilson used 

Edward O. Wilson 

insect societies to demonstrate evolution 
from single organisms to the ecological 
dominance of the superorganism. 
Understanding the transitions between 
different levels of biological organization 
provides insight into how major steps of 
evolution can occur. In his final lecture, 
"Consilience," Prof. Wilson explored 
the boundaries among science, social 
sciences and the humanities and the 
interlocking cause and effect of these 
disciplines. This borderland of previously 
poorly understood relationships is the 
new frontier of academia, providing 
opportunities for novel collaboration 
across three great branches of learning. 

Prof. Wilson's lectures are available online 
news_items/prather_20 1 0. html. 

The MCZ Commemorates 150 Years 

Louis Agassiz 

In celebration of the 150 th anniversary of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, a series of 
three lectures were given by Director James 
Hanken; Dr. Cristian Samper, Director of the 
Smithsonian Institution's National Museum 
of Natural History; and Dr. Michael Novacek, 
American Museum of Natural History 
paleontologist and Senior Vice-President and 
Provost of Science. Dr. Hanken gave the first 
address, 'This Brick Ark: Celebrating the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology's First 150 
Years and the Beginning of the Next 150." 
Hanken U aced the founding of the MCZ and 
its legacy as a leader in the field of natural 
history research and education. In his lecture 
"Natural History Museums and Society," 
Dr. Samper examined the past, present and 
fuUire of naUxral history collections. Modern 
museums are increasingly focusing on their 

roles to educate and inform the public, 
attracting visitors to the physical spaces 
with sophisticated interactive exhibitions 
and engaging them on the Internet with 
online exhibitions and digitized collections. 
Dr. Novacek also stressed the importance 
of education in his talk, "Natural History 
Museums in the Environmental Century." 
Because scientific realities are not generally 
understood by the general public — 
decoupling climate change and biodiversity 
loss, for example — researchers and the 
museums that house them must highlight 
the relevance of their work as they seek to 
understand the intricacies of the natural world. 

Dr. Hanken and Dr. Samper's lectures are 
available online at www.hmnh.harvard. 

William James, taken in Brazil in 
1865 following an attack of smallpox 

MCZ History: William James 

The MCZ has attracted more than its fair share of talented students, 
a tradition that continues to this day. Among them is William James, 
founder of American psychology and renowned philosopher. As a 
Harvard undergraduate James came under the spell of Louis Agassiz, 
who brought him along on the MCZ's Thayer expedition to Brazil in 
1865-1866. James quickly discovered that serious field biology, and 
especially gathering specimens, was not to his liking. As he wrote to his 
parents in a letter from October 1865: "If there is any thing I hate it is 
collecting. I don't think it is suited to my genius at all." 





Museum of Comparative Zoology 

Awards & Recognition 


Farish A. Jenkins, Jr. 

The 2009 Romer-Simpson Medal was 

awarded to Farish A. Jenkins, Jr., at the 69 th 
annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate 
Paleontology in Bristol, UK. This award is 
SVP's highest honor, bestowed for sustained 
and outstanding scholarly excellence in the 
discipline of vertebrate paleontology. 

Prof. Jenkins also was recognized with 
a 2010 Everett Mendelsohn Excellence 
in Mentoring Award, established by the 
Harvard Graduate Student Council to 
honor faculty members who truly go out 
of their way to mentor Graduate School of 
Arts and Sciences students. Finally, Prof. 
Jenkins received The Joseph R. Levenson 
Memorial Teaching Prize, 2010, given 
by undergraduate students to professors 
whose excellence in teaching has made a 
difference in their Harvard experience. 

Breda Zimkus 

Breda Zimkus received the Ethel K. Allen 
Fellowship from Sigma Delta Epsilon- 
Graduate Women in Science, an award that 
is designed to encourage research careers 
in the sciences by women. Zimkus is a 
former graduate student in herpetology 
in the Hanken lab and is currently project 
manager for the MCZ's new Genetic 
Resources Facility. Her fellowship will be 
used to support her postdoctoral work on 
the frog genus Ptychadena. 

Edward O. Wilson 

In October 2009, the 
Prince Albert II of Monaco 
Foundation honored 
Edward O. Wilson with the 
prestigious Biodiversity 
Award for his lifelong 
contribution to protecting 
the world's biological 
diversity. During his 
acceptance of the award, 
Dr. Wilson stressed that 
we have only just begun to 
explore Earth's biodiversity. 

James J. McCarthy 

The University of California, San Diego, 
named James J. McCarthy one of the 
University's Top 100 Prominent and 
Influential Alumni. In May 2010, Prof. 
McCarthy received an honorary degree 
from Bates College in Maine. 

Krzysztof M. Kozak 

Krzysztof M. Kozak, an undergraduate in 
the Hoekstra lab, was awarded a Hoopes 
Prize for his senior honors thesis, "Tales 
of tails: Multiple origins of adaptive tail 
elongation in the deer mouse, Peromyscus 
maniculatus." His thesis work was supported 
by several Grants-In-Aid of Undergraduate 
Research from the MCZ. 

Joanna Larson 

Joanna Larson, an undergraduate in the 
Hanken lab, received a summer fellowship 
from the Smithsonian's National Museum 
of Natural History. Larson interned in the 
NMNH Department of Vertebrate Zoology, 
studying patterns of morphological 
variation in elephant shrews and 
morphological features of hybrids of polar 
bears and brown bears. 

Prashant Sharma 

Prashant Sharma, a graduate student in 
invertebrate zoology and member of the 
Giribet lab, won the Willi Hennig Award 
for best oral presentation by a student at 
the Hennig Society's annual meeting in 
Honolulu, Hawaii, in May 2010. 

Prince Albert II of Monaco and 
Edward O. Wilson 

Joanna Larson 

Annual Report 2009-2010 



• Albert ( \ Giribet G, ( lutjahr M (2<X)9) Ultrastructure 
ofspeniiatoz<>aof cUffcrcnts|xxiesof N«>goveiclae, 
Sironidae, and Stykxvllkbie (( fyphophthalmi: 
Opiliones). Qmtrib Nat Hist (Bern) 12:5369 

• Alcaide M, Edwards SV, ( lariahia SV, Negro JJ 
(2009) MHC. class I genes of birds of prey: isolation, 
polymorphism and diversifying selection. Ccmserv 
Genet 10:1349-1355 

• Alcaide M, Serrano D, Telia JL, Negro JJ (2009) 
Strong philopatry derived from capture-recapture 
records does not lead to fine-scale genetic 
differentiation in lesser kestrels. JAnimEcol 78:468475 

• Alvarez-Padilla F, Dimitrov D, Giribet G, Hormiga 
G (2009) Phylogenetic relationships of the spider 
family Tetragnathidae (Araneae, Araneoidea) based 
on morphological and DNA sequence data Cladistics 

• AminetzachYT, SroujiJR, Kong CY Hoekstra HE 

(2009) Convergent evolution of novel protein function 
in shrew and lizard venom. CurrBM 19:1925-1931 

•ArchettiM (2009) Cooperation as a volunteer's 
dilemma and the strategy of conflict in public goods 
games. J Evol Biol 22:2192-2200 

• Archetti M (2009) Loss of autumn colors under 
domestication. A byproduct of selection for fruit 
flavor? Plant Signaling & Behavior 4:856-858 

• Baer B, den Boer SPA, Kronauer DJC, Nash DR 
BoomsmaJJ (2009) Fungus gardens of the leafcutter 
ant Atta colombica function as egg nurseries for the 
snake Leptodeira annulata. Insect Soc 56:289-291 

• Balakrishnan CB, Edwards SV (2009) Nucleotide 
variation, linkage disequilibrium and founder- 
facilitated speciation in wild populations of the zebra 
finch Taeniopygia guttata. Genetics 181:645-660 

• Berry AJ, Hoekstra HE (2009) (Re) Reading The 
Origin. CurrBiol 19:R9 

• Boyer SL, Giribet G (2009) Welcome back New 
Zealand: Regional biogeography and Gondwanan 
affinities of three endemic genera of mite 
harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) . 
JBiogeogr 36:1084-1099 

• Bozkurttas M, Mittal R Dong H, Lauder GV, 
Madden P (2009) Low-dimensional models and 
performance scaling of a highly deformable fish 
pectoral fin. J Fluid Mech 631:31 1-342 

• Canfield MR, Chang S, Pierce NE (2009) The 
double cloak of invisibility: Phenotypic plasticity and 
larval decoration in a geometrid moth, Synchlora 
frondaria, across three diet treatments. EcolEntomol 

• Carlson RL, Wainwright PC, Near TJ (2009) 
Relationship between species co-occurrence and 
morphological change in Percina darters (Percidae: 
Etheostomatinae). Evolution 63:767-778 

• douse RM, de Bivort BL, Giribet G (2009) A 
phylogenetic analysis for the South-east Asian 
mite harvestman family Stylocellidae (Opiliones: 
Cyphophthalmi) — a combined analysis using 
morphometric and molecular data, Invertebr Syst 

• Collar DC, ( )'M«ira B( :, Wainwiight PC, Near 
TJ (2009) l\sc ivory limits drveiNification of feeding 
morphology in centrarchid fishes. Evolution 63:1557- 

• Collar DC, Wainwiight PC (2009) Ecomorphology 
of the Centrarchidae. In Centrarchid Fishes: Diversity, 
Biology and Conservation (Cook SJ, Philipp DP, eds) 
70-89. Blackwell Scientific Press: Cambridge, UK 

• DeVaney SC, Hartel KE, Themelis DE (2009) 
The first records oiNeocyema (Teleostei: 
Saccopharyngiformes) in the western North Atlantic 
with comments of its relationship to Leptocephalus 
holti Schmidt 1909. Northeast Nat 16:409-414 

• Deyrup M, Cover S (2009) Dacetine ants in 
southeastern North America (Hymenoptera: 
Formicidae) . Southeastern Naturalist 8:191-212 

• Edgecombe GD, Giribet G (2009) Phylogenetics of 
scutigeromorph centipedes (Myriapoda: Chilopoda) 
with implications for species delimitation and 
historical biogeography of the Australian and New 
Caledonian faunas. Cladistics 25:406427 

• Edwards SV (2009) Is a new and general theory of 
molecular systematics emerging? Evolution 63:1-19 

• Edwards SV (2009) Natural selection and phylogenetic 
analysis. Proc NaU Acad Sd USA 106:87995800 

• Espinasa L, Giribet G (2009) Living in the dark — 
species delimitation based on combined molecular 
and morphological evidence in the nicoletiid 
genus Texoreddettia Wygodzinsky, 1973 (Hexapoda: 
Zygentoma: Nicoletiidae) in Texas and Mexico. Texas 
Memorial Museum Speleological Monographs 7:87-100 

• Flammang BE, Lauder GV (2009) Caudal fin shape 
modulation and control during acceleration, braking 
and backing maneuvers in bluegill sunfish, Lepomis 
macrochirus.JExpBiol 212:277-286 

• Framenau VW, Scharff N, Levi HW (2009) Not from 
'Down Under": new synonymies and combinations for 
orbweaving spiders (Araneae: Araneidae) erroneously 
reported from Australia Zootaxa 2073:22-30 

• Friedrich F, Farrell BD, Beutel RG (2009) The 
thoracic morphology of Archostemata and the 
relationships of the extant suborders of Goleoptera 
(Hexapoda). Cladistics 25:1-37 

• Gavrilets S, Losos JB (2009) Adaptive radiation: 
Contrasting theory with data. Science 323:732-737 

• Giribet G (2009) Book review Perspectives in 
Animal Phytogeny and Evolution by Alessandro 
Minelli. Syst Biol 58:159-160 

• Giribet G (2009) Daddy-Long-Legs (Opiliones) In 
Encyclopedia of Insects, 2nd Ed. (Resh VH, Carde R 
eds) 244-245. Academic Press/Elsevier Science: San 
Diego, CA 

• Giribet G (2009) On velvet worms and caterpillars: 
Science, fiction, or science fiction? Proc Natl Acad Sci 
USA 106, El 31 

• Giribet G, Dunn CW, Edgecombe GD, Hejnol A, 
Martindale MQ, Rouse GW (2009) Assembling the 
Spiralian Tree of Life. In Animal Evolution: Genes, 
Genomes, Fossils and Trees (Telford MJ, Littlewood 
DT, eds) 52-64. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK 

• Giribet G, Guzman Cuellar A, Edgecombe GD 

(2009) Further use of molecular data in studying 
bi( geographic patterns within the centipede genus 
Craterostigmus: the case for a monophyletic New 
Zealand species. Soil Organisms 81:557-563 

• Guang-Xin H, Ming-Sheng Z, Levi HW (2009) Two 
little known genera Deione and Talthybia (Araneida 
Araneae) from southern China. Zootaxa 2297:55-63 

• Guil N, Giribet G (2009) Fine scale population 
structure in the Echiniscus blumi-canadensis series 
(Heterotardigrada, Tardigrada) in an Iberian 
mountain range — When morphology fails to explain 
genetic structure. Mol Phybgenet Evol 51:606-613 

• Gwinn NE, Rinaldo CA (2009) The Biodiversity 
Heritage Library: sharing biodiversity with the world. 
WLA Journal 35:25-34 

• Hanken J (2009) "Rx for human (and planetary) 
health" review of Sustaining Life: How Human Health 
Depends on Biodiversity (Chivian E, Bernstein A, eds.) 
ReVista 8:6466 

• HankenJ (2009) David B. Wake. In Evolution: The 
First Four Billion Years (Ruse M, Travis J, eds) 901-902. 
Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA 

• HejnolA, ObstM, StamatakisA, OttM Rouse 
GW, Edgecombe GD, Martinez P, BagunaJ, Bailly X, 
Jondelius U, Wiens M, Muller WEG, Seaver E, Wheeler 
WC, Martindale MQ Giribet G, Dunn CW (2009) 
Assessing the root of bilaterian animals with scalable 
phylogenomic methods. Proc Roy SocB 276:42614270 

• Hoekstra HE (2009) 'The Evolution Ringmaster" 
review of The Greatest Show on Earth: the Evidence for 
Evolution, Dawkins R Cell 139:454455 

• Holldobler B, Wilson EO (2009) The 
Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness 
of Insect Societies. WW Norton & Company: New 
York, NY 

•Janes DE, Ezaz T, Graves JAM, Edwards SV (2009) 
Recombination and nucleotide diversity in the 
pseudoautosomal region of minimally differentiated 
sex chromosomes in the Emu, Dromaius 
novaehollandiae. J Hered 100:125-136 

•Jones TH, Shear WA, Giribet G (2009) The 
chemical defenses of a stylocellid from Sulawesi with 
comparisons to other Cyphophthalmi (Arachnida, 
Opiliones). JArachnol 37:147-150 

• Kingsley EP, Manceau M, Wiley CD, Hoekstra 

HE (2009) Melanism in Peromyscus is caused by 
independent mutations in Agouti. PbS One 4:e6435 

• Levin SA, ed, Carpenter SR Godfray HCJ, Kinzig 
AP, Loreau M, Losos JB, Walker B, Wilcove DS, assoc. 
eds (2009) The Princeton Guide to Ecology. Princeton 
University Press: Princeton, NJ 

• Levi HW (2009) A new araneid genus from the 
Galapagos Islands (Araneae: Araneidae) . Thaler 
Gedenkschrift Contrib Nat Hist (Bern) 12:893398 

• Lira JL, DeMont ME (2009) Kinematics, 
hydrodynamics and force production of pleopods 
suggest jet-assisted walking in the American lobster 
(Homarus americanus) . J Exp Biol 212:2731-2745 

• Linnen CR, Kingsley EP, Jensen JD, Hoekstra HE 

(2009) On the origin and spread of an adaptive allele 
in deer mice. Science 325:1095-1098 


Museum of Comparative Zoology 


• Lhi L, \u L, Kubatko L, Pearl DK, Edwards 
SV (2009) Coalescent methods for estimating 
phylogenetic trees. Mol Phylogenet Evol 53:320-328 

• Lhi L, Edwards SV (2009) Phylogenetic analysis in 
the anomaly zone. Systematic Bio fogy 58:452460 

• Liu L, \U 1, Pearl DK, Edwards SV (2009) 
Estimating species phylogenies using coalescence 
times among sequences. Syst Biol 58:468-477 

• Losos JB (2009) Lizards in an Evolutionary Tree: 
Ecology and Adaptive Radiation ofAnoles. University 
of California Press: Berkeley, CA 

• Losos JB, Parent CE (2009) The speciation-area 
relationship. In The Tlieory of Island Biogeography 
Revisited (Losos JB, Ricklefs RE, eds) 415438 
Princeton University Press: Princeton, NJ 

• Losos JB, Ricklefs RE (2009) Adaptation and 
diversification on islands. Nature 457:830-836 

• Losos JB, Ricklefs RE, eds (2009) The Theory of 
Island Biogeography Revisited. Princeton University 
Press: Princeton, NJ 

• Losos JB, Schneider q (2009) Anolis lizards. 
CurrBiol 19:R316-R318 

• Martins DJ (2009) Differences in Odonata abundance 
and diversity in pesticide&hed, traditionally&hed 

and protected areas in Lake Victoria, Eastern Africa 
(Anisoptera). Odonatobgka 38:247-255 

• Martins DJ (2009) Pollination and facultative 
ant-association in the African leopard orchid Ansellia 
africana. J East Afr Nat Hist 98:67-77 

• McCarthy JJ (2009) Reflections on: Our planet and 
its life, origins, and futures. Science 326:1646-1655 

• McKenna DD, Sequeira AS, Marvaldi AE, Farrell 
BD (2009) Temporal lags and overlap in the 
diversification of weevils and flowering plant 
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:7083-7088 

• McKenna DD, FarreD BD (2009) Beetles 
(Coleoptera) . In The Timetree of Life (Hedges SB, 
Kumar S, eds) 278-289. Oxford University Press: 
Oxford, UK 

• Motta PC, Levi HW (2009) A new species of Argiope 
(Araneae: Araneidae) from Brazil. Zoofogia, Sociedad 
Brasileira de Zoofogia 26:334-336 

• Mullen LM, Vignieri SN, Gore JA Hoekstra 
HE (2009) Adaptive basis of geographic 
variation: genetic, phenotypic and environmental 
differentiation among beach mouse populations. 
Proc Roy SocB 276:3809-3818 

• Murierme J (2009) Molecular data confirm family 
status of the Tryonicus-Lzuraesilp/uigroup (Insecta, 
Blattodea,Tryonicidae). OrgDiversEvol 9:44-51 

• Murienne J (2009) New Caledonia: Biology. In 
Encyclopedia of Islands (Gillespie R, Clague D, eds) 
643-645. University of California Press: Berkeley, CA 

• Murienne J (2009) Testing biodiversity hypotheses 
in New Caledonia using phylogenetics./ Biogeogr 

• Murienne J, Giribet G (2009) The Iberian 
Peninsula: ancient history in a hot spot of mite 
harvestmen (Arachnida Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: 
Sironidae) diversity. ZoolJLinn Soc 156:785-800 

• Murienne J, Guilbert E, Grandcolas P (2009) 
Species diversity in the New Caledonian endemic 
genera Cephalidiosus and Nobarnus (Insecta: 
Heteroptera: Tingidae) , an approach using 
phytogeny and species distribution modeling. 
Biol] Linn Soc 97:177-184 

• Organ CL Janes DE Meade A Pagel M (2009) 
Genotypic sex determination enabled adaptive 
radiations of extinct marine reptiles. Nature 461:389-392 

• Organ CL, Shedlock AM (2009) Palaeogenomics of 
pterosaurs and the evolution of small genome size in 
flying vertebrates. Biol Letters 5:47-50 

• Organ CL, Brusatte S, Stein K (2009) Sauropod 
dinosaurs evolved moderately sized genomes 
unrelated to body size. Proc Roy Soc B 276:43034308 

• Perez K, Carbon RL Shulman MJ, EllisJC (2009) 
Why are intertidal snails rare in the subtidal? Predation, 
growth, and the vertical distribution of Littonna littorm 
(L) in the Gulf of Mwie.JExp MarBiolEcol 369:7936 

• Ramakrishnan S, Zheng L, Mittal R, Najjar 
FM, Lauder GV, Hedrick TL (2009) Large eddy 
simulation of flows with complex moving boundaries: 
Application to flying and swimming in animals. AIAA 
Computational Fluid Dynamics,]une 22-25, 2009, 
San Antonio, Texas 

• Revell LJ, Collar DC (2009) Phylogenetic analysis 
of the evolutionary correlation using likelihood. 
Evolution 63:1090-1100 

• Rinaldo C (2009) The Biodiversity Heritage 
Library: Exposing the taxonomic literature. JAgrFood 
Inform 10:259-265 

• Rinaldo C, Warnement J (2009) Creating a 
Biodiversity Commons: The Biodiversity Heritage 
Library. Harvard University Library Notes No.1350 

• Russell JA Goldman-Huertas B, Moreau CS, 
Baldo L, StahlutJK, Werren JH, Pierce NE (2009) 
Host specificity and geographic isolation among 
Wolbachia symbionts from ants and lycaenid 
butterflies. Evolution 63:624-640 

• Russell JA Moreau CS, Goldman-Huertas B, 
Fujiwara M, Lohman DJ, Pierce NE (2009) Bacterial 
gut symbionts are tightly linked with the evolution 
of herbivory in ants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 

• Schweitzer MH, Zheng W, Organ CL, Avci R Suo Z, 
Freimark LM, Lebleu VS, Duncan MB, Vander Heiden 
MG, NeveuJM, Lane WS, CottrellJS, Homer JR 
Cantley LC, Kalluri R AsaraJM (2009) Biomolecular 
characterization and protein sequences of the 
Campanian hadrosaur B. canadensis. Science 324:626-361 

• Sharma P, Giribet G (2009) A relict in New 
Caledonia: Phylogenetic relationships of the family 
Troglosironidae (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi). 
Cladistics 25:279-294 

• Sharma P, Giribet G (2009) Sandokanid phytogeny 
based on eight molecular markers — the evolution 

of a southeast Asian endemic family of Laniatores 
(Arachnida, Opiliones). Mol Phylogenet Evol 52:432447 

• Sharma P, Giribet G (2009) The family 
Troglosironidae (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi) of New 
Caledonia Zoologia Neocaledonica: Biodiversity Studies in New 
Caledonia 7:83-123 

• Sharma P, Karunarathna I, Giribet G (2009) On 
the endemic Sri Lankan genus Pettalus (Opiliones, 
Cyphophthalmi, Pettalidae) with die description of a 
new species and a discussion on the magniaide of its 
diversity.yAractao/ 37:60-67 

• Silva MC, Edwards SV (2009) Structure and 
evolution of a new avian MHC class II B gene 
in a subAntarctic seabird, the Thin-Billed Prion 
(Procellariiformes: Pachyptila belcheri).] Mol Evol 

• Steiner CC, Rompler H, Boettger LM, Schoneberg T, 
Hoekstra HE ( 2009) The genetics basis of phenotypic 
convergence in beach mice: similar pigmentation 
patterns but different genes. Mol Biol Evol 26:3545 

• TangoraJL, Esposito CJ, Lauder GV (2009) 
Biorobotic fins for investigations offish locomotion. 
In IEEE /RSJ International Conference on Intelligent 
Robots and Systems 2009, Sl Louis MO 2120-2125 

• Thomasson HA Buermann W, Mila B, Graham CH, 
Cameron SE, Schneider CJ, PollingerJP Saatchi S, 
Wayne RK Smith TB (2009) Modeling environmentally 
associated morphological and genetic \ariation in a 
rainforest bind, and its application to conservation 
prioritization. EvolAppl 3:1-16 

• Weber JN, Peters MB, Tsyusko OV, Linnen CR, Hagen 
C, Schable NA Tuberville TD, McKee AM, Lance SL 
Jones KL Fisher HS, Dewey MJ, Hoekstra HE, Glenn 
TC (2009) Five hundred microsatellite markers for 
Peromyscus. Consew Genet 11:1243-1246 

• Weber JN, Hoekstra HE (2009) The evolution 
of burrowing behavior in deer mice. Anim Behav 

•Wheeler WC, Giribet G (2009) Phylogenetic 
hypotheses and the utility of multiple sequence 
alignment. In Perspectives on Biological Sequence 
Alignment (Rosenberg M, ed) University of 
California Press, Berkeley, CA 

• Wilson NG, Huang D, Goldstein MC, Cha H, 
Giribet G, Rouse GW, (2009) Field collection 
of Laevipilina hyalinaMcheaii, 1979 from 
southern California the most accessible living 
monoplacophoran./ Mollusc Stud 75: 1 95-1 97 

• Winston JE, Woollacott RM (2009) Scientific results 
of the Hassler expedition. Bryozoa No. 1. Barbados. 
Bulletin of the MCZ 159:239-300 

• Wu Y, Rovito SM, Papenfuss TJ, Hanken J (2009) 
A new species of the genus Paramesotriton (( auriata: 
Salamandridae) from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous 
Region, southern China. Zootaxa 2060:59-68 

• Zimkus BM (2009) Biogeographic analysis of 
puddle frogs across Cameroon and description 
of a new species of Phrynobatrachus (Anura 
Phrynobatrachidae) endemic to Mount Oku, 
Cameroon. ZoolJLinn Soc 157:805822 

• Zimkus BM, Larson JG (2009) External 
morphology and osteology support the placement 
of Phrynobatrachus nlonakoensis Plath, Herrmann, 
and Bohme, 2006 within the genus Arthroleptis. AfrJ 
Herpetol 58:36-38 

Annual Report 2009-2010 


MCZ Grant Recipients 
Academic Year 2009-2010 

Grants-ln-Aid of Undergraduate Research (GUR) 

These grants support research by Harvard undergraduates under faculty supervision. Priority 
is given to projects that utilize MCZ research collections, laboratories and facilities. Support 
for these grants comes from the Myvanwy M. and George M. Dick Scholarship for Students. 

Recipient Faculty Sponsor Project Title Amount 

Andrew G. Brownjohn 

Naomi E. Pierce 

Determining the cytological mechanism of 
parthenogenesis in Cerapachys biroi 


Elena Butler 

Charles C. Davis 

Applied pitcher plants: using phylogeny to 
understand biogeography 


Eva Catenaccio 

Hopi E. Hoekstra & 
Jonathan Losos 

The genetic basis of body coloration 
in Anolis lizards: the MC1R gene and 
interspecific patterns of variation 


Grace K. Charles 

Jonathan B. Losos 

Interactive effects of species loss and 
climatic variability: an experimental approach 


Andrew H. Chen 

N. Michele Holbrook 

The invasive species ecology of Myoporvm 


Jeremy L Hsu 

Marcus Kronforst 

Examining the genetic basis of migration in 
monarch butterflies 


Alexander M. Kim 

Gonzalo Giribet 

Anomalous distributions and invasion 
in Texan freshwater prawns (Decapoda: 
Caridea: Macrobrachium) 


Joanna Larson 

James Hanken 

Identification of African tadpoles using DNA- 


Sondra Lavigne 

Charles C. Davis 

The breeding system and extent of post- 
parasite infection in a Rhizanphes lowii 


Jennifer Levye 

N. Michele Holbrook 

Water usage in Melastomataceae along a 
successional gradient 


Daniel P. Perl 

Daniel E. Lieberman 

An energetic comparison of shod running 
vs. barefoot running 


Carl T. Pforzheimer 

H. Bradley Shaffer 

Multivariate analysis of turtle shell evolution 


Megan E. Popkin 

Naomi E. Pierce 

Determining the purpose of stridulation in 
Lycaena phlaeas americana 


Brandon Kwee 
Boon Seah 

Colleen M. 

Co-speciation and phylogeny in a three-way 
marine symbiosis 


Susan Seav 

Arkhat Abzhanov 

The developmental bases of sexual shape 
dimorphism in anole lizards 

$2,230 Fall; 
$2,470 Winter 

Trieu H. Ton 

Cassandra G. 

Analysis of Parhyale hawaiensis maternal 
determinants and germ cell differentiation 

$1 ,200 

Lewis M. Ward 

Christopher J. Marx 

Who eats what, where and why? 
Characterization of carbon source utilization 
by multiple strains of methylobacterium 


Jennifer Woolridge 

H. Bradley Shaffer 

Broad-scale turtle morphometric study 
using MCZ collections 


Chung Yao Yu 

Peter R. Girguis 

Effects of symbiont composition on the 
metabolism of "short-fat" and "long-skinny" 
Ridgeia piscesae 

$2,500 Fall; 
$2,000 Winter 

Total Awards 



Museum of Comparative Zoology 


Putnam Expedition Grants 

Putnam Expedition Grants are intended to support MCZ faculty-curators, postdoctoral 
fellows and graduate students in collecting specimens and data relating to the study of 
comparative zoology. Priority is given to projects that collect living specimens in regions 
where habitats are threatened or fossil specimens in regions most likely to hold important 
clues for unraveling evolutionary strategies. 

Recipient MCZ Department Project Title Amount 

Ronald Clouse & 
Prashant Sharma 


Collecting harvestmen (Stylocellidae and 
Zalmoxidae, Opiliones) from Micronesia and 
Palawan Island, Philippines 


Matthew Fujita 


Contact zone dynamics and systematics of 
a widespread Australian endemic gecko 


Vanessa Gonzalez 

Invertebrate Zoology 

Collecting members of Archiheterodonta 
(Bivalvia: Heterodonta) in the western North 
America: Resolving familial relationships 
within this group 


Milan Janda 


Ant communities of New Guinea savannas— 
the first exploration of unknown fauna 


Zofia Ada Kaliszewska 


Lycaenid life history evolution in South Africa 


Emily Kay 


Sexual isolation as a reproductive barrier 
between Peromyscus leucopus and 
P. gossypinus 


Sarah Kocher & 
Naomi Pierce 


Expedition to collect Lasioglossum albipes 
(Hymenoptera: Halictidae): a socially 
polymorphic halictid bee species in the 


Clemens Kupper 


Evolution of sex-role reversal in polygamous 


Frank E. Rheindt 


Examining introgression between two 
species of Elaenia flycatcher 


Wenfei Tong 


Geographic variation in kinship and 
cooperation in wild mound-building mice 
(Mus spicilegus) 


Sebastian Velez 

Invertebrate Zoology 

Deep sampling of the New Zealand 
Triaenonychidae (Opiliones, Laniatores) to 
finalize a biogeographical study and revision 
of the genus Nuncia 


Total Awards 


Miyata Grants 

Miyata Grants are intended to enable herpetological fieldwork by MCZ graduate students. Non- 
herpetological fieldwork may be eligible when there are no deserving herpetological projects. 


MCZ Department 

Project Title 


Shane Campbell- 


Adaptive response to pathogen infection: 
Anolis carolinensis and Plasmodium floridense 


Yoel Stuart 


Ecological character displacement in Anolis 


Yunke Wu 


Systematics, phylogeography and ecology 
of Eastern Asian salamanders in the genera 
of Pachytriton, Paramesotriton and Cynops 


Total Awards 


at0t ^^ TffliWffPjM'y^*^^ 

Annual Report 2009-2010 



Ernst Mayr Travel Grants in Animal Systematics 

Ernst Mayr Grants support travel for research in animal systematics and are open to the scientific 
community worldwide. The principal objective of these grants is to stimulate taxonomic work 
on neglected taxa and/or poorly described species. Ernst Mayr Grants typically facilitate visits to 
institutional collections, with preference given to research using the MCZ's collections. 


Recipient Institutional Project Title Amount 


Rachel J. Arnold 

University of 

A phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic 
revision of the stargazers (Teleostei: 


Corinna S. Bazelet 

University, South 

A review of the South African agile 
grasshoppers (Insecta: Orthoptera: 
Acrididae: Euryphyminae) and a revision of 
the genus Euryphymus Stal, 1 873 


Marek L. Borowiec 

University of 
Wroclaw, Poland 

Taxonomy and systematics of the ant 
subfamily Cerapachyinae (Hymenoptera: 


Michael G. Branstetter 

University of 
California, Davis 

Taxonomic revision of Mesoamerican 
Stenamma (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) 


Kirstin Sara Brink 

University of Toronto 

Evolutionary history of Dimetrodon 


Shawn T. Dash 

University of Texas 
at El Paso 

A taxonomic revision and sytematic 
treatment of Hypoponera (Hymenoptera: 
Formicidae) Santschi, 1938 of the New 

$1 ,484 

Leandro Carlos 

Universidad de 
Buenos Aires, 

Restudy of the basal mammals and 
cynodont collections of the MCZ, 
comparative anatomy and phylogeny 


Luiz Fernando Gelin 

University of 

Taxonomy of Polybia Lepeletier, 1 836 
(Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) 


Geert Goemans 

University of 

Revision of the South American cicada tribe 
Zammarini (Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadidae) 


Liza E. Gomez Daglio 

University of 
California, Merced 

Taxonomic revision of scyphozoan jellyfish 


Jesus Gomez- 

Spanish High 
Research Council, 
Institute for 
Evolutionary Biology 

Systematic revision of the poorly studied 
southern nearctic and neotropical 
Calligrapha Chevrolat 


Jessica R. Hawthorn 

University of 

Evolution and systematics of 

$1 ,000 



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"" *"■"•*'' 



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Museum of Comparative Zoology 


Recipient Institutional Project Title Amount 


Adelita Maria 

Universidade Federal 
do Parana, Brazil 

Study of Monoplatina (Coleoptera, 
Chrysomelidae, Alticini) types in the Natural 
History Museum, London 

$1 ,500 

Paulo Lucinda 

University of 
Michigan, Museum 
of Zoology 

Systematics and biogeography of the live- 
bearing killifishes of the tribes Priapichthyni 
and Girardinini (Cyprinodontiformes, 
Poeciliidae, Poeciliinae) 

$1 ,000 

William P. Mackay 

University of Texas 
at El Paso 

Revision of the New World species of the 
ant genus Aphaenogaster 



University of Florida 

Redefining species limits in the complex 
Holothuria impatiens 

$1 ,000 

Jesus Orozco 

University of 

Revision of the American Cetoniini 
(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae) 


Claudia M. Ortiz- 

Universidad Nacional 
de Colombia 

Revision of the ant genus Brachymyrmex 
Mayr (Formicidae: Formicinae) 


Jong-Seok Park 

Louisiana State 

A generic revision of the supertribe 
Faronitae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: 
Pselaphinae) and a revision of the genus 
Sagola (Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae: 


Maria del Rosario 

Universidad Nacional 
de La Piata, 

Study of Syphaciini and Capillariinae 
nematode parasites from American rodents: 
morphology and taxonomy 


Clare H. Scott 

University of Florida 

Revision and review of the generic limits 
of the lichen moth genus Lycomorpha 
(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Arctiinae) 


Cameron D. Siler 

University of 

Historical processes of limb reduction and 
loss in an island skink lineage 


Kelly M. Walsh 

San Francisco State 
University and the 
California Academy 
of Sciences 

Systematics of Echinocyamus (Fibulariidae: 

$1 ,350 

Total Awards 




Annual Report 2009-2010 


Financial Data 

These charts describe the income and expenses of the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology in fiscal year 201 0. Endowment income funds much of the Museum's 
activities, including acquisition and maintenance of collections, faculty and staff 
salaries, capital projects, facilities renovation and maintenance. Transfers include 
Harvard University-funded faculty research and financial support for the Ernst 
Mayr Library. Other Income comprises miscellaneous income from publication 
subscriptions, royalties, sales and fees, revenue generated from assets purchased 
through endowments and endowed funds decapitalized per donor request. 
Capital Projects includes renovation of the MCZ's ground floor for alcohol-based 
collections. Building expenses such as maintenance, facility improvements and 
utilities are captured in the Space and Occupancy category. Operating Expenses 
consist of equipment purchases, supplies, consultant and conferences fees, as 
well as annual subventions to the Department of Organismic and Evolutionary 
Biology (OEB) and to the Harvard Museum of Natural History for general support, 
gallery installation and renovations. Support for MCZ-affiliated graduate students in 
OEB is included in Scholarships and Awards. 


Revenue 11% 

Revenue 5% 

Revenue 4% 

Other Income 3% 
Transfers 3% 
Gifts 1 % 

Expenses and Non-Operating Funds 

Space and Capitalized Scholarships 
Occupancy per Donor and Awards 4% 
11% \ Request 4% / Capjta| 

Projects 5% 

Endowment 73% 

Operating Salaries and Fringe 
Expenses 31 % Benefits 45% 





Salaries and Fringe Benefits 


Federal Sponsored Revenue 


Operating Expenses 


Nonfederal Sponsored Revenue 


Space and Occupancy 


Reserve Revenue 


Capital Projects 




Capitalized per Donor Request 


Other Income 


Scholarships and Awards 








Museum of Comparative Zoology 



Andrew A. Biewener 
Charles P. Lyman Professor of Biology; 
Director, Concord Field Station; 
Chair, OEB 

Scott V. Edwards 

Professor of Biology; Alexander Agassiz 

Professor of Zoology; Curator of 


Brian D. Farrell 

Professor of Biology; Curator of Entomology 

Gonzalo Giribet 

Professor of Biology; Curator of 

Invertebrate Zoology 

James Hanken 

Professor of Biology; Alexander Agassiz 
Professor of Zoology; Curator of 
Herpetology; Director, MCZ 

Hopi E. Hoekstra 

fohn L. Loeb Associate Professor of 

the Natural Sciences; Curator of 


Farish A. Jenkins, Jr. 
Professor of Biology; Alexander Agassiz 
Professor of Zoology; Curator of 
Vertebrate Paleontology 

George V. Lauder 

Professor of Biology; Henry Bryant 
Bigelow Professor of Ichthyology; 
Curator of Ichthyology 

Karel F. Liem 

Professor of Biology; Henry Bryant 
Bigelow Professor of Ichthyology; 
Curator of Ichthyology 

Jonathan B. Losos 
Monique and Philip Lehner Professor 
for the Study of Latin America; 
Curator of Herpetology 

Charles R. Marshall 

Professor of Biology and of Geology; 

Curator of Invertebrate Paleontology 

James J. McCarthy 
Professor of Biological Oceanography; 
Alexander Agassiz Professor of 
Biological Oceanography; Acting 
Curator of Malacology 

Naomi E. Pierce 

Sidney A. and John H. Hessel Professor 

of Biology; Curator of Entomology 

Robert M. Woollacott 
Professor of Biology; Curator of 
Marine Invertebrates 

Faculty Emeriti 

Kenneth J. Boss 

Faculty-Curator, Emeritus; 
Professor of Biology, Emeritus 

A.W. "Fuzz" Crompton 

Faculty-Curator, Emeritus; Professor of 
Natural History, Emeritus 

Herbert W. Levi 

Faculty-Curator, Emeritus; Professor of 
Biology, Emeritus 

Richard C. Lewontin 

Professor of Biology, Emeritus; 
Alexander Agassiz Professor of 
Zoology, Emeritus 

Edward O. Wilson 
Faculty-Curator, Emeritus; Pellegrino 
University Professor, Emeritus 

Postdoctoral Fellows, 
Research Associates 
& Visiting Scholars 

Miguel Alcaide 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Adam Algar 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Bei An 

Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Sonia Andrade 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Marco Archetti 

Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Allison Arnold-Rife 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Hans Niclas Backstrom 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Rose Carlson 
Ichthyology, Lauder Lab 

Angelica Cibrian-Jaramillo 

Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Ronald Clouse 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

David C. Collar 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Thomas Devitt 
Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

Vera Domingues 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Rodney Eastwood 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Heidi Fisher 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Matthew Fujita 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

David R Hughes 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Carlos Infante 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Milan Janda 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Daniel Janes 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 


Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Gisele Kawauchi 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Jason Kolbe 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Daniel Kronauer 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Clemens Kupper 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

David Lentink 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Catherine Ramsay Linnen 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Liang Liu 

Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Mark Liu 

Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

David Lubertazzi 

Global Ant Project, Wilson Lab 

Marie M. Manceau 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Duane McKenna 

Entomology, Farrell Lab 

Maria Miara 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Gabriel Miller 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Carlos Moreno 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Hendrik Mueller 
Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

Jerome Murienne 
Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Akiko Okusu 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Terry Ord 

Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Chris Organ 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Brant Peterson 

Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Nadine Piekarski 
Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

Tiago Quental 
Invertebrate Paleontology, 
Marshall Lab 

Frank Rheindt 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Ana Riesgo 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Alicia Rodriguez Perez-Porro 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Jessica Rykken 
Entomology, Farrell Lab 

Yael Salzman 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Thomas Sanger 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

H. Bradley Shaffer(Hrdy Fellow) 
Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

Andrew Shedlock 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Varpu Vahtera 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Sacha Vignieri 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Noah K. Whiteman 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Katharina Wollenberg 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Graduate Students 

Christopher Baker 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Maude Baldwin 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Angela Berg 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Erin Blevins 
Ichthyology, Lauder Lab 

Shane Campbell-Staton 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Ron Clouse 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Mark Cornwall 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Nicole Danos 
Ichthyology, Lauder Lab 

Amanda Evans 
Entomology, Farrell Lab 

Brooke Flammang 
Ichthyology, Lauder Lab 

Ricardo Godinez 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Vanessa Gonzalez 
Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Alexis Harrison 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Emily Jacobs-Palmer 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Collin Johnson 

Marine Invertebrates, Woollacott Lab 

Zona Kaliszewska 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Emily Kay 

Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Eunsuk Kim 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Evan Kingsley 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Christopher Laumer 
Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

June Yong Lee 
Ornithology, Edivards Lab 

Zachary Lewis 
Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

Jeanette Lim 
Ichthyology, Lauder Lab 

Luke Mahler 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Dino Martins 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Hillery Metz 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Carlos Moreno 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Lynne Mullen 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

Martha Muhoz 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Ivo Ros 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Elizabeth Sefton 
Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

Prashant Sharma 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Julie Shoemaker 

Biological Oceanography, McCarthy 1Mb 

Yoel Stuart 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 


Wenfei Tong 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra l,<il> 

Sebastian Yelez 

Invertebrate Zoology, Giribet Lab 

Jesse Weber 
Mammalogy, Hoekstra Lab 

\ in ike Wu 

Herfretology, Hanken Lab 

Shaoyuan Wu 

Vertebrate Paleontology, Jenkins Lab 

Edwin Yoo 

Concord Field Station, Biewener Lab 

Xuemai Zhai 

Biological Oceanography, McCarthy Lab 


Bruce Archibald 

Associate of Entomology 
Simon Fraser University 

Aaron Bauer 

Associate of Herpetology 
Villanova University 

Reinier Beeuwkes, III 

Associate of Zoology 
Ischemix Company (MA) 

Andrew Berry 

Associate of Population Genetics 
Harvard University 

Elizabeth Brainerd 
Associate of Ichthyology 
Brown University 

Donald S. Chandler 
Associate of Entomology 
University of New Hampshire 

Jae Choe 

Associate of Entomology 

Ewha Womans University (Korea) 

Janet Collett 

Associate of Population Genetics 

University of Sussex 

Bruce Collette 
Associate of Ichthyology 
National Marine Fisheries Service 

David Bruce Conn 
Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 
Berry College 

James Costa 

Associate of Entomology 
Western Carolina University 

Catherine Craig 

Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 

Harvard University 

Harlan Dean 

Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 
Harvard University 

Lloyd Demetrius 

Associate of Population Genetics 

Harvard University 

Philip DeVries 
Associate of Entomology 
University of New Orleans 

Gregory D. Edgecombe 

Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 
Natural History Museum, England 

Ben Evans 

Associate of Herpetology 

McMaster University 

Ki( hard Glor 
Associate nj Herpetology 
University of Rochester 

Kelvin A. Guerrero 

. \ \ sociate oj Entomology 

Systematic Entomologist /Environmental 


Michael Hadfield 

Associate of Marine Biology 
Kewalo Marine Laboratory 

Anthony Herrel 

Associate of Herpetology 

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle 


Berthold Holldobler 

Associate of Entomology 
University of Wurzburg 

Gustavo Hormiga 

Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 

George Washington University 

Alan Rabat 
Associate of Malacology 
Bernabei & Wachtel (DC) 

Leslie S. Raufman 
Associate of Ichthyology 
Boston University 

Timothy Laman 
Associate of Ornithology 
National Geographic 

Ruth Hortencia Bastardo Landrau 

Associate of Entomology 
Universidad Autonoma de Santo 

Phillip Lobel 

Associate of Ichthyology 
Boston University 

David Lohman 

Associate of Entomology 
Harvard University 

Vladimir A. Lukhtanov 
Associate of Entomology 
Russian Academy of Sciences 

Russell Mittermeier 

Associate of Herpetology 
Conservation International 

William Montevecchi 
Associate of Ornithology 
Memorial University of Newfoundland 

Piotr Naskrecki 
Associate of Entomology 
Conservation International 

Martin Nweeia 
Associate of Mammalogy 
Harvard School of Dental Medicine 

Michele Nishiguchi 

Associate of Invertebrate Paleontology 

New Mexico State University 

Diane B. Paul 

Associate of Population Genetics 
University of Massachusetts, Boston 

David L. Pawson 

Associate of Marine Biology 
Smithsonian National Museum of 
Natural History 

Stewart Peck 
Associate of Entomology 
Carleton University 

Paulo Petry 
Associate of Ichthyology 
The Nature Conservancy 

Sieve Poe 

Associate of Herpetology 

University of New Mexico 

Rolf Ream 

Associate of Mammahgy 

National Marine Mammal Laboratory 

Michael Rex 

Associate of Malacology 

University of Massachusetts, Boston 

Jury Rudyakov 

Associate of Invertebrate Zoology 
Harvard University 

Chris Schneider 
Associate of Herpetology 
Boston University 

Andrea Sequeira 
Associate of Entomology 
Wellesley College 

Scott R. Shaw 
Associate of Entomology 
University of Wyoming 

Navjot Sodhi 
Associate of Ornithology 
National University of Singapore 

Joel Sohn 

Associate of Ichthyology 

Golden Mountain Trading Company (CA) 

Stephen Tilley 
Associate of Herpetology 
Smith College 

James Traniello 

Associate of Entomology 
Boston University 

David Wagner 
Associate of Entomology 
University of Connecticut 

David Wake 
Associate of Herpetology 
University of California, Berkeley 

Marvalee Wake 
Associate of Herpetology 
University of California, Berkeley 

Philip S. Ward 

Associate of Entomology 
University of California, Davis 

Jacqueline Webb 

Associate of Ichthyology 
University of Rhode Island 

R. Haven Wiley 
Associate of Ornithology 
University of North Carolina 

Cheryl Wilga 
Associate of Ichthyology 
University of Rhode Island 

Judith Winston 
Associate of Marine Biology 
Virginia Museum of Natural History 


Emily Aker 

Curatorial Assistant, Ornithology 

William Amaral 

Preparation Facility Manager, Vertebrate 


Adam Baldingci 

Curatorial Associate, Invertebrate 

Zoology and Mal/irotogy 

Dorothy Barr 

Public Services/MCB Liaison 
Lil/rarian, Ernst Mayr Library 

Daniel Belich 

Reference Librarian, i.inst Mayr 

Constance Brichford 
Curatorial Assistant, Collections 

Ronnie Broadfoot 
Circulation/Reference, Ernst Mayr 

Greyson Brooks 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 


Dahlia Bursell 

Data Assistant, CoUections Operations 

Christopher Carden 

Metadata Librarian, BHL & EML 

Margaret Carayannopoulos 
Financial Officer 

Paul Chaikin 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 


Mary Catherine Chaikin 
Curatorial Assistant, Collections 

Flavia Chen 

Curatorial Assistant, Ornithology 

Judith Chupasko 
Curatorial Associate, Mammalogy 

Christina Coffin 

Intern, Ernst Mayr Library 

Stefan Cover 

Curatorial Assistant, Entomology 

Jessica Cundiff 

Curatorial Associate, Invertebrate &f 
Vertebrate Paleontology 

Susan DeSanctis 

Serials Acquisitions Assistant, Ernst 

Mayr Library 

Joseph deVeer 

Head of Technical Services, Ernst Mayr 


Samantha Edelheit 
Faculty /Collection Assistant, 
Malacology; Editorial Assistant, MCZ 

Katherine Eldridge 
Curatorial Assistant, Ornithology 

Anne Everly 

Research Assistant, Herpetology 

Charles Farnum 

Curatorial Assistant, Entomology 

Helene Ferranti 

Faculty /Collection Assistant, Biological 

Oceanography & Marine Biology 

Dana Fisher 

Assistant to the Librarian/Special 

Collections, Ernst Mayr Library 

Linda S. Ford 

Director, Collections Operations 


Miyako Fujiwara 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 


Sonia Gandiaga 

Faculty/Collection Assistant, Ichthyology 

Benjamin Goldman-Huertas 
Curatorial Assistant, Entomology 

Brendan Haley 

Senior Database Manager 

Karsten Hartel 

Curatorial Associate, Ichthyology 

Peg Hedstrom 

Administrator, Concord Field Station 

Kathleen Horton 
Faculty/Collection Assistant, 

Am ie Jones 

Faculty /Collection Assistant, 


Petra Kubikova 
Faculty/Collection Assistant, 

Laura Leibensperger 
Curatorial Assistant, Invertebrate 

Lisa Litchfield 

Administrator, Concord Field Station 

Mara Lyons 

Faculty /Collection Assistant, 

Invertebrate Of Vertebrate Paleontology 

Joseph Martinez 
Curatorial Assistant, Herpetology 

Christopher Meehan 
Laboratory Technician, Entomology 

Jessica Mitchell 

Intern, Ernst Mayr Library 

Juri Miyamae 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 

Paul Morris 

Biodiversity Informatics Manager 

Katherine Mullen 

Library Assistant, Ernst Mayr Library 

April Mullins 

Acquisitions and Technology Specialist, 

Ernst Mayr Library 

Catherine Musinsky 
Faculty /Collection Assistant, 

John Nevins 

Laboratory Systems Manager for 

Biological Oceanography Of Marine 


Somer O'Brien 

Staff Assistant, Concord Field Station 

Mark Omura 

Curatorial Assistant, Mammalogy 

Philip Perkins 

Curatorial Associate, Entomology 

Alison Pirie 

Faculty/Collection Assistant, 
Ornithology Of Mammalogy 

Pedro Ramirez 

Research Assistant, Concord Field 

Murat Recevik 

Curatorial Assistant, Malacology 

Mark Renczkowski 

Curatorial Assistant, Invertebrate 


Constance Rinaldo 
Librarian, Ernst Mayr Library 

Alana Rivera 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 


Jose Rosado 

Curatorial Associate, Herpetology 

Mary Sears 

Head of Public Services, Ernst Mayr 


Diane Sheridan 
Faculty/Collection Assistant, 
Invertebrate Zoology 

Ingrid Soltero 

Research Technician, Ornithology 

Cheryl Souza 

Facility/Collection Assistant, Ichthyology 

Robert Stymeist 

Curatorial Assistant, Ornithology 

Christopher Sussman 

Data Assistant, Collections Operations 

Tsuyoshi Takahashi 

Curatorial Assistant, Herpetology Of 

Collections Operations 

Jennifer Thomson 
Faculty /Collection Assistant, 
Populations Genetics 

Diana Tingley 

Curatorial Assistant, Collections 


Jeremiah Trimble 
Curatorial Associate, Ornithology 

Noemi Velazquez 

Data Assistant, Collections Operations 

Van Wallach 

Curatorial Assistant, Invertebrate 


Catherine Weisel 
Museum Project Coordinator 

Ken Wilcox 

Building Superintendent, Concord Field 

Andrew Williston 

Curatorial Assistant, Ichthyology 

Jonathan Woodward 
Curatorial Assistant, Herpetology Of 
Collections Operations 

Melissa Woolley 

Faculty /Collection Assistant, 


Robert Young 

Special Collections Librarian, Ernst 

Mayr Library 

Breda Zimkus 

Project Manager for Genetic Resources 


Harvard Undergraduate 

Sarah Al-Naggar 
Ernst Mayr Library 


Noor Beckwith 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Emily Boehm 
Entomology, Farrell Lab 

Portia Botchway 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Anthony Buda 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Eva Catenaccio 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Ilsoo Cho 

Ernst Mayr Library 

Adam Clark 
Entomology, Farrell Lab 

Benjamin Cox 

Ernst Mayr Library 

Andrew Dane 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Renata Toga De Sousa 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Lee Dietterich 

Encyclopedia of Life 

William Goldsmith 
Ichthyology, Lauder Lab 

Laura Horton 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Henry Huberty 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Lili Kocsis 

Herpetology, Hanken Lab 

Hannah Lyons-Galante 
Herpetology, Losos Lab 

Megan Popkin 
Entomology, Pierce Lab 

Roberto Sada 
Ernst Mayr Library 

Katharine Walter 
Ornithology, Edwards Lab 

Encyclopedia of 
Life, Learning and 
Education Group 

Tracy Barbaro 
Project Coordinator 

Jeffrey T. Holmes 
Digital Learning Editor 

Marie M. Studer 

Learning Of Education Project Director 

Administration for the 
Department of Organismic 
and Evolutionary Biology 

Rebecca Chetham 
Director of Administration 

Irv Dumay 

Building Manager 

Paul Dwyer 

Mail Clerk 

Jeannette Everritt 
Administrative Coordinator 

Jason Green 

Financial Assistant 

Stephanie Hillsgrove 
Financial Assistant 


Susan L. Kany 

Interim Assistant Director of 


Philip Norton 

Building Services Coordinator 

Christopher Preheim 

Academic Programs Coordinator 

Shelarese Ruffin 

Assistant for Human Resources 

Anna Salvato 

Manager of Financial Operations 

Deborah Smiley 
Web Project Manager 

Angel Velarde 
Financial Assistant 

Ellen Wilkin 
Financial Assistant 

MCZ Faculty 

The MCZ's charter, signed 
in 1859, mandates that 
the Museum's activities 
will be overseen by a 
governing board, the 
Faculty of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. 

The members of the 
Faculty are: 

Dr. John D. Constable 

Mr. Robert G. Goelet 

Mr. George Putnam, Jr. 

Mr. George Putnam, III 

Mr. David B. Stone 

Dr. Barbara Jil Wu 

Mr. Paul J. Zofnass 

President Drew Gilpin 


This annual report was produced 

by the Office of the Director of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. 


James Hanken, Director 
Catherine Weisel, Museum 
Projects Coordinator 

Copy, Design & Production: 
Cyndi Wood 
Creative Project 
Management, Inc. 
vnuui. creativeprojectmgmt. < om 

Museum of Comparative Zoology 

26 Oxford Street 
Cambridge, MA 02138